Mitchel S. Berger
Mitchel S. Berger
Nader Sanai and Mitchel S. Berger
Although a primary tenet of neurosurgical oncology is that survival can improve with greater tumor resection, this principle must be tempered by the potential for functional loss following a radical removal. Preoperative planning with functional and physiological imaging paradigms, combined with intraoperative strategies such as cortical and subcortical stimulation mapping, can effectively reduce the risks associated with operating in eloquent territory. In addition to identifying critical motor pathways, these techniques can be adapted to identify language function reliably. The authors review the technical nuances of intraoperative mapping for low- and high-grade gliomas, demonstrating their efficacy in optimizing resection even in patients with negative mapping data. Collectively, these surgical strategies represent the cornerstone for operating on gliomas in and around functional pathways.
Anil Sehgal and Mitchel S. Berger
The immune system is a complex network of specialized cells and organs that defends the human body against attack from foreign pathogens. The major lymphocytes involved in protecting the body against potential infections are B and T cells, which also play an important role in combating tumor growth. The cells of the immune system patrol the tissues and organs through both blood and lymphatic vessels, but some organs—including cornea, testes, and brain—are usually not patrolled by these cells. The brain has been thought to be an immune-privileged site because of the tight blood–brain barrier (BBB) that protects it. Few cells migrate to the brain under normal circumstances, because the BBB permits only certain molecules to cross into brain tissue. Recently, however, studies have shown that activated T cells exposed to antigen can cross the intact BBB and migrate into brain. This finding opens the path to developing effective means of immunotherapy for lesions of the central nervous system. The authors discuss basic facets of the immune system, review the current knowledge about human neuroimmunology, and survey current strategies for developing immunotherapy-based treatments for human brain tumors.
Mitchel S. Berger and Bob S. Carter
Nader Sanai and Mitchel S. Berger
Kurtis I. Auguste, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, and Mitchel S. Berger
Patients with brain tumors are at considerable risk for the formation of venous thromboemboli. One method of preventing these complications is mechanical prophylaxis in which an external pneumatic compression device and graduated elastic compression stockings are used. Evidence indicates that these devices prevent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) by limiting venous stasis and increasing fibrinolytic activity at both the local and systemic levels. The authors present evidence for the occurrence of both mechanisms and discuss the use of mechanical compression in the setting of surgery for brain tumors. They also present data proving the efficacy of these devices in patients who undergo craniotomy with motor mapping for resection of glioma and in whom the contralateral leg receives no prophylaxis. Finally, they comment on the use of anticoagulation therapy both in addition to and in place of mechanical prophylaxis.
Hagen Schiffbauer, Mitchel S. Berger, Paul Ferrari, Dirk Freudenstein, Howard A. Rowley, and Timothy P. L. Roberts
The aim of this study was to compare quantitatively the methods of preoperative magnetic source (MS) imaging and intraoperative electrophysiological cortical mapping (ECM) in the localization of sensorimotor cortex in patients with intraaxial brain tumors.
Preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) was performed while patients received painless tactile somatosensory stimulation of the lip, hand, and foot. The early somatosensory evoked field was modeled using a single equivalent current dipole approach to estimate the spatial source of the response. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance image volume data sets with fiducials were coregistered with the MEG recordings to form the MS image. These individualized functional brain maps were integrated into a neuronavigation system. Intraoperative mapping of somatosensory and/or motor cortex was performed and sites were compared.
In two subgroups of patients we compared intraoperative somatosensory and motor stimulation sites with MS imaging–based somatosensory localizations. Mediolateral projection of the MS imaging source localizations to the cortical surface reduced systematic intermodality discrepancies. The distance between two corresponding points determined using MS imaging and ECM was 12.5 ± 1.3 mm for somatosensory–somatosensory and 19 ± 1.3 mm for somatosensory–motor comparisons. The observed 6.5 mm increase in site separation was systematically demonstrated in the anteroposterior direction, as expected from actual anatomy. In fact, intraoperative sites at which stimulation evoked the same patient response exhibited a spatial variation of 10.7 ± 0.7 mm.
Preoperative MS imaging and intraoperative ECM show a favorable degree of quantitative correlation. Thus, MS imaging can be considered a valuable and accurate planning adjunct in the treatment of patients with intraaxial brain tumors.