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Giovanni La Rosa, Domenico d'Avella, Alfredo Conti, Salvatore Cardali, Domenico La Torre, Fabio Cacciola, Marcello Longo, and Francesco Tomasello

Spinal epidural hematomas (SEHs) are uncommon complications caused by traumatic injuries to the spine. Emergency surgical evacuation is the standard treatment. Although recognized in the literature, the possibility of nonsurgical treatment of traumatic SEHs is far from being codified. The authors report on the treatment of four patients whose traumatic SEHs were diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging and managed conservatively with excellent results.

All patients had suffered severe spine injury with fracture of a lumbar vertebral body, were admitted within 12 hours of trauma, and exhibited only minimal neurological disturbances on admission. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed within 24 hours of trauma. Hematomas appeared isointense/slightly hyperintense on T1- and heterogeneous on T2-weighted MR images. Clot thickness varied between 0.8 cm and 1 cm, width between 1 cm and 1.8 cm, and length between 2.7 and 9 cm. In light of each patient's fairly good neurological condition a conservative approach was taken. In all cases serial MR imaging documented progressive clot resolution, which was completed within 8 to 10 days of trauma. At discharge all patients were neurologically intact.

The conservative treatment option of traumatic SEH should be reserved for exceptional cases whose deficits are minimal, when neurological deterioration is followed by early and sustained spontaneous recovery, and when there are clear medical contraindications for surgery. The results of the present study confirm that nonsurgical treatment is feasible in a subgroup of minimally symptomatic patients who harbor moderate-sized SEHs. Although the authors' experience shows a good spontaneous outcome of some traumatic SEH, further studies are necessary to understand the real spectrum of nonsurgical treatment of such lesions.

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Giovanni La Rosa, Fabio Cacciola, Alfredo Conti, Salvatore Cardali, Domenico La Torre, Nicola Maria Gambadauro, and Francesco Tomasello


Clinical and radiographic results in 30 consecutive patients who underwent posterior lumbar fixation and posterior facet joint or posterior interbody fusion for Meyerding Grade II/III spondylolisthesis were assessed: 1) to address the suitability of a dynamic stabilization; and 2) to investigate whether there are differences in terms of clinical and functional results and biomechanical properties between these two types of arthrodesis.


Between June 1998 and April 2000, 16 patients underwent posterior interfacet fusion and implantation of the SOCON-SRI system. In 14 patients posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and placement of the same system were performed. Clinical, economic, functional, and radiographic data were recorded pre- and postoperatively.

The average changes in the Prolo Scale economic and functional scores were 1.25 and 1.62, respectively, in patients who underwent posterior fusion; the average measured preoperative vertebral slippage was 47.8% (range 30–65%), and postoperatively it was 18.5% (range 15–25%). In patients in whom PLIF was performed, the average changes in economic and functional score were 1.21 and 1.36, respectively, and the average preoperative vertebral slippage was 43.5% (range 30–55%) compared with 20% (range 15–25%) postoperatively.


The use of a segmental pedicle screw fixation with the SOCON-SRI system successfully combines the goal of solid fusion with the requirements of nerve root decompression. When the two fusion techniques were compared, an overall superior reliability and resistance of the systems was associated with the PLIF procedure (p = 0.04) but clinical outcomes did not differ greatly (p ≥ 0.05).

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Alfredo Conti, Antonio Pontoriero, Ignazio Salamone, Carmelo Siragusa, Federica Midili, Domenico La Torre, Amedeo Calisto, Francesca Granata, Pantaleo Romanelli, Costantino De Renzis, and Francesco Tomasello

Symptomatic edema is a potential complication of meningioma radiosurgery. Parasagittal meningiomas are at a particular risk for symptomatic edema, suggesting a role for a venous occlusive complication. The authors sought to develop a strategy to optimize CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgical treatment parameters to reduce the irradiation of the peritumoral venous system. Multislice CT venography with 3D reconstructions was performed and coregistered with thin-section, contrast-enhanced, volumetric MR images. The tumor and critical volumes were contoured on the MR images. Venous anatomical details obtained from the CT venographic study were then exported onto the MR imaging and fused MR imaging-CT study. Target and critical structure volumes and dosimetric parameters obtained with this method were analyzed. The authors found that reducing the irradiation of veins that course along the surface of the meningioma, which may be at risk for radiation-induced occlusion, is feasible in parasagittal meningioma radiosurgery without compromising other treatment parameters including conformality, homogeneity, and target coverage. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess the clinical validity of this treatment strategy.