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Kristina Bianco, Robert Norton, Frank Schwab, Justin S. Smith, Eric Klineberg, Ibrahim Obeid, Gregory Mundis Jr., Christopher I. Shaffrey, Khaled Kebaish, Richard Hostin, Robert Hart, Munish C. Gupta, Douglas Burton, Christopher Ames, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, and Virginie Lafage

456.9 ± 131.1 Incidence of Complications and Site Variability After 3CO surgery, 7% of patients experienced a major IOC, 39% experienced a major POC, and 42% experienced an overall complication. The incidence of each type of major IOC ( Table 2 ) and POC ( Table 3 ) was determined. The most common IOC was spinal cord deficit (2.6%), and the most common POC was unplanned return to the operating room (19.4%). Another significant POC was bowel or bladder dysfunction (6.9%), defined as significant complications of the gastrointestinal or urinary system following

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Justin K. Scheer, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Vedat Deviren, Richard Hostin, Ian M. McCarthy, Gregory M. Mundis, Douglas C. Burton, Eric Klineberg, Munish C. Gupta, Khaled M. Kebaish, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames, and the International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

follows: bowel and/or bladder deficit, death, deep vein thrombosis, deep infection, motor deficit, myocardial infarction, optical deficit, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, reintubation, sepsis, stroke, acute respiratory distress, pancreatitis, tracheostomy, unplanned return to the operating room, and arrhythmia. Patients were stratified by age: ≤ 45 years (young), 46–64 years (middle aged), and ≥ 65 years (elderly). Health-related QOL measures, including the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain assessment, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

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Justin K. Scheer, Jessica A. Tang, Justin S. Smith, Eric Klineberg, Robert A. Hart, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Douglas C. Burton, Richard Hostin, Michael F. O'Brien, Shay Bess, Khaled M. Kebaish, Vedat Deviren, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames, and the International Spine Study Group

return to the operating room as a result of the original surgery. The reoperation indications were divided into the following categories: instrumentation malposition/rod fracture, radiographic (proximal junction failure, distal junction failure, pseudarthrosis, coronal malalignment) neurological compromise, infection, medical (cardiopulmonary, vascular gastrointestinal, renal), operative, and wound. The instrumentation malposition/fracture category described situations in which there was implant failure or migration, malpositioning, painful implants, or bony fracture