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Kai J. Miller, Casey H. Halpern, Mark F. Sedrak, John A. Duncan III, and Gerald A. Grant

over medical therapy alone, 12 , 31 and these stereotactic procedures minimize the negative sequelae. 4 , 10 Laser ablation of the mesial temporal lobe has demonstrated efficacy in both adult and pediatric patients. 8 , 32 Laser ablation and stimulation are each now used as either primary therapies or adjuvant therapies following surgery for lateralized temporal onset of seizures in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. In the case of bitemporal epilepsy, one could ablate the nondominant mesial temporal lobe and place an RNS on the dominant side. Occipital

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Allen L. Ho, Yagmur Muftuoglu, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, Brenda E. Porter, Casey H. Halpern, and Gerald A. Grant

localization and work-up for medically refractory epilepsy of several different etiologies ( Table 1 ). All patients underwent multidisciplinary review by an institutional epilepsy board prior to consideration for SEEG. This study was performed at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford with approval from the Stanford University Internal Review Board. TABLE 1. General demographic data in 20 patients with epilepsy who underwent SEEG Characteristic Value Mean age in yrs, ± SD 10.9 ± 5.8 Male sex 65% (13/20) Seizure etiology  Nonlesional 9  Tuberous sclerosis 4

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Allen L. Ho, Austin Y. Feng, Lily H. Kim, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, Casey H. Halpern, and Gerald A. Grant

been accepted for treatment in adults, there is less consensus on its utility in children. Our literature review seeks to describe the current state of SEEG with a focus on more recent technology-enabled surgical techniques and demonstrate its efficacy for the pediatric epilepsy population. Medically Refractory Epilepsy in Children Key differences in medically intractable epilepsy exist between children and adults. For instance, epileptogenic location often presents in different anatomical regions. Temporal lobe epilepsy is most common in adults, whereas many