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Ann-Christine Duhaime

There are many diseases and treatments encountered by the pediatric neurosurgeon and other brain-based specialists that may affect patients differently depending on age. It is well accepted that radiation is more harmful in the youngest children, while recovery from focal deficits such as those to language networks is more difficult in the older child or adolescent than in preschool children. Whether children do “better” or “worse” or are more or less vulnerable to traumatic brain injury has been the subject of much discussion, and, as in most things, the

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Andrew D. Legarreta, Benjamin L. Brett, Gary S. Solomon, and Scott L. Zuckerman

concussed children 2–12 years of age, preexisting noninjury factors had an increasingly strong association with PCS after a mild traumatic brain injury over time. 6 Prior arguments for brain reserve as a modifying factor in outcomes after cerebral insult have centered around poorer outcomes for children with preexisting learning difficulties. 6 In the current study, we found that learning disabilities were significantly more common in the combined FPH/PPH group, suggesting that a relationship may exist among learning disability, FPH/PPH, and PCS. It is possible the

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Thomas A. Buckley, Gary S. Solomon, Allen K. Sills, and Zachary Y. Kerr

, only total score on a symptom inventory was associated with symptoms lasting more than 4 weeks. In a comprehensive systematic review of general traumatic brain injury, 45 the total symptom severity score was associated with PCS in 4 of the 8 studies discussed. Although the ISP uses a 17-symptom checklist, it does not measure the severity of the symptoms. Future research should continue to examine how the type, number, and severity of symptoms are associated with long-term outcomes associated with SRC. Our findings contradict previous results in that several

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Denis Mkony, Juma Magogo Mzimbiri, Andreas Leidinger, Christopher M. Bonfield, Scott L. Zuckerman, and Roger Härtl

animal attacks requiring neurosurgical intervention have been reported, 2 , 4 , 5 those that occur in LMICs present unique challenges. 1 , 11 , 12 Four prior reports exist that describe hyena injuries, 6 , 7 , 9 , 10 all from sub-Saharan Africa, totaling 18 cases spanning the ages of 5–50 years. Each patient recovered fully. Most cases involved head and neck lacerations, yet no skull fractures, dural involvement, or traumatic brain injuries have been reported. Here, we present the case of a 3-year-old boy who sustained a hyena bite causing a large skull defect. Due

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Colin T. Prather, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Gary S. Solomon, Allen K. Sills, and Christopher M. Bonfield

hematoma[tiab] OR subdural hemorrhage[tiab] OR “subarachnoid hemorrhage”[tiab] OR “Lymphangioma, Cystic”[Mesh] OR hygroma[tiab] OR hygromas[tiab] OR “Hydrocephalus”[Mesh] OR hydrocephalus[tiab] OR “Athletic Injuries”[Mesh] OR athletic injuries[tiab] OR sports injuries[tiab] OR recreational injuries[tiab] OR “sport”[tiab] OR “sports”[tiab] OR “athletics”[tiab] OR “Craniocerebral Trauma”[Mesh] OR “head trauma”[tiab] OR “brain injury”[tiab] OR “brain injuries”[tiab] OR “mild traumatic brain injury”[tiab] OR “mTBI”[tiab] OR “traumatic brain injury”[tiab] OR “tbi”[tiab] OR

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Ivan Sosa and Alan Bosnar

TBI is ignored. 3 Disclosure The authors report no conflict of interest. References 1 Ho ML , Rojas R , Eisenberg RL : Cerebral edema . AJR Am J Roentgenol 199 : W258 – W273 , 2012 2 McCrory PR , Berkovic SF : Concussion: the history of clinical and pathophysiological concepts and misconceptions . Neurology 57 : 2283 – 2289 , 2001 3 Sosa I , Grubesic A , Bosnar A : Mild traumatic brain injuries and their sequelae. I: the need for screening . J Rehabil Med 44 : 988 , 2012 4 Yang Y , Rosenberg GA : Blood

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Young M. Lee, Mitchell J. Odom, Scott L. Zuckerman, Gary S. Solomon, and Allen K. Sills

C oncussion , also termed “mild traumatic brain injury,” is a complex pathophysiological process induced by traumatic biomechanical forces to the brain. 3 In the US, 1.6–3.2 million traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur each year, with the majority classified as mild and over 50% occurring in children. 11 More than 300,000 TBIs result from sports-related activities each year in the US. 33 Sports-related concussion (SRC) has been found to account for more than 10% of all athletics-related injuries in high school athletes. 19 , 25 From 2001 to 2009

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Young M. Lee, Mitchell J. Odom, Gary S. Solomon, and Allen K. Sills

conference on concussion in sport, Vienna 2001 . Phys Sportsmed 30 : 57 – 63 , 2002 4 Boyle CA , Boulet S , Schieve LA , Cohen RA , Blumberg SJ , Yeargin-Allsopp M , : Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008 . Pediatrics 127 : 1034 – 1042 , 2011 5 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries from sports and recreation activities— United States, 2001–2005 . MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56 : 733 – 737 , 2007 6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : Nonfatal

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Brian Holt Zalneraitis, Douglas J. Totten, Kolin E. Rubel, Andrew W. Kuhn, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, Christopher M. Bonfield, Allen K. Sills, and Gary S. Solomon

symptom duration or time away from school or sport. 29 Several risk factors have been associated with recovery time, including severity of symptoms, history of concussion, personal and family history of preinjury migraines and mood disorders, and sex. 14 , 17 , 19 Other factors, such as socioeconomic status (SES), have yet to be investigated. Socioeconomic status has been studied mostly in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), in which lower SES has been generally associated with worse social outcomes, 6 , 32 although the literature is mixed. 24 In one

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Clinton D. Morgan, Scott L. Zuckerman, Young M. Lee, Lauren King, Susan Beaird, Allen K. Sills, and Gary S. Solomon

, 62 Also associated with a higher likelihood of PCS after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in youth are immediate postinjury amnesia, loss of consciousness, confusion, migraine headache, photophobia, phonophobia, and poor cognition. 15 , 16 , 33 , 35 , 38 , 43 However, even these findings have been disputed; the association depends on whether the mTBI was sport related. 50 TABLE 1 PCS clusters Somatic Cognitive Sleep Emotional Headaches Fatigue Difficulty sleeping More emotional Visual problems Fogginess