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Readmission after spinal epidural abscess management in urban populations: a bi-institutional study

Presented at the 2019 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Michael Longo, Zach Pennington, Yaroslav Gelfand, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Murray Echt, A. Karim Ahmed, Vijay Yanamadala, Daniel M. Sciubba, and Reza Yassari

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is rising, yet there are few reports discussing readmission rates or predisposing factors for readmission after treatment. The aims of the present study were to determine the rate of 90-day readmission following medical or surgical treatment of SEA in an urban population, identify patients at increased risk for readmission, and delineate the principal causes of readmission.

METHODS

Neurosurgery records from two large urban institutions were reviewed to identify patients who were treated for SEA. Patients who died during admission or were discharged to hospice were excluded. Univariate analysis was performed using chi-square and Student t-tests to identify potential predictors of readmission. A multivariate logistic regression model, controlled for age, body mass index, sex, and institution, was used to determine significant predictors of readmission.

RESULTS

Of 103 patients with identified SEA, 97 met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 57.1 years, and 56 patients (57.7%) were male. The all-cause 90-day readmission rate was 37.1%. Infection (sepsis, osteomyelitis, persistent abscess, bacteremia) was the most common cause of readmission, accounting for 36.1% of all readmissions. Neither pretreatment neurological deficit (p = 0.16) nor use of surgical versus medical management (p = 0.33) was significantly associated with readmission. Multivariate analysis identified immunocompromised status (p = 0.036; OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1–11.5) and hepatic disease (chronic hepatitis or alcohol abuse) (p = 0.033; OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1–7.7) as positive predictors of 90-day readmission.

CONCLUSIONS

The most common indication for readmission was persistent infection. Readmission was unrelated to baseline neurological status or management strategy. However, both hepatic disease and baseline immunosuppression significantly increased the odds of 90-day readmission after SEA treatment. Patients with these conditions may require closer follow-up upon discharge to reduce overall morbidity and hospital costs associated with SEA.

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Murray Echt, Ariel Stock, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Evan Der, Mousa Hamad, Ryan Holland, Phillip Cezayirli, Rani Nasser, Vijay Yanamadala, and Reza Yassari

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of separation surgery for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) versus open surgery.

METHODS

A retrospective study of patients undergoing MIS or standard open separation surgery for MESCC between 2009 and 2019 was performed. Both groups received circumferential decompression via laminectomy and a transpedicular approach for partial corpectomy to debulk ventral epidural disease, as well as instrumented stabilization. Outcomes were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS

There were 17 patients in the MIS group and 24 in the open surgery group. The average age of the MIS group was significantly older than the open surgery group (65.5 vs 56.6 years, p < 0.05). The preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score of the open group was significantly lower than that of the MIS group, with averages of 63.0% versus 75.9%, respectively (p = 0.02). This was also evidenced by the higher proportion of emergency procedures performed in the open group (9 of 24 patients vs 0 of 17 patients, p = 0.004). The average Spine Instability Neoplastic Score, number of levels fused, and operative parameters, including length of stay, were similar. The average estimated blood loss difference for the open surgery versus the MIS group (783 mL vs 430 mL, p < 0.05) was significant, although the average amount of packed red blood cells transfused was not significantly different (325 mL vs 216 mL, p = 0.39). Time until start of radiation therapy was slightly less in the MIS than the open surgery group (32.8 ± 15.6 days vs 43.1 ± 20.3 days, p = 0.069). Among patients who underwent open surgery with long-term follow-up, 20% were found to have local recurrence compared with 12.5% of patients treated with the MIS technique. No patients in either group developed hardware failure requiring revision surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

MIS for MESCC is a safe and effective approach for decompression and stabilization compared with standard open separation surgery, and it significantly reduced blood loss during surgery. Although there was a trend toward a faster time to starting radiation treatment in the MIS group, both groups received similar postoperative radiotherapy doses, with similar rates of local recurrence and hardware failure. An increased ability to perform MIS in emergency settings as well as larger, prospective studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of MIS over standard open separation surgery.