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João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Gabriel Ayub, Mateus Nogueira, Tamires Zanao, Tátila Martins Lopes, Luciana Ramalho Pimentel-Silva, Vinicius Domene, Gabriel Marquez, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, Letícia Franceschet Ribeiro, Brunno M. Campos, José Vasconcellos, Fabio Rogerio, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Fernando Cendes, Helder Tedeschi, and Enrico Ghizoni


The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a modified surgical approach for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). This modified approach, called temporopolar amygdalohippocampectomy (TP-AH), includes a transsylvian resection of the temporal pole and subsequent amygdalohippocampectomy utilizing the limen insula as an anatomical landmark.


A total of 61 patients who were diagnosed with HS and underwent TP-AH between 2013 and 2017 were enrolled. Patients performed pre- and postoperative diffusion tensor imaging and were classified according to Engel’s scale for seizure control. To evaluate the functional preservation of the temporal stem white-matter fiber tracts, the authors analyzed postoperative Humphrey perimetries and pre- and postoperative neurocognitive performance (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT], Weschler Memory Scale–Revised [WMS-R], intelligence quotient [IQ], Boston Naming Test [BNT], and semantic and phonemic fluency). Demographic data and surgical complications were also recorded and described.


After a median follow-up of 36 ± 16 months, 46 patients (75.4%) achieved Engel class I, of whom 37 (60.6%) were Engel class IA. No significant changes in either the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus and optic radiation tractography were observed postoperatively for both left- and right-side surgeries. Reliable perimetry was obtained in 40 patients (65.6%), of whom 27 (67.5%) did not present any visual field defects (VFDs) attributable to surgery, while 12 patients (30%) presented with quadrant VFD, and 1 patient (2.5%) presented with hemifield VFD. Despite a significant decline in verbal memory (p = 0.007 for WMS-R, p = 0.02 for RAVLT recognition), there were significant improvements in both IQ (p < 0.001) and visual memory (p = 0.007). Semantic and phonemic fluency, and scores on the BNT, did not change postoperatively.


TP-AH provided seizure control similar to historical temporal lobe approaches, with a tendency to preserve the temporal stem and a satisfactory incidence of VFD. Despite a significant decline in verbal memory, there were significant improvements in both IQ and visual memory, along with preservation of executive function. This approach can be considered a natural evolution of the selective transsylvian approach.