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Peter Vajkoczy, Bernhard Meyer, Stefan Weidauer, Andreas Raabe, Claudius Thome, Florian Ringel, Volker Breu, Peter Schmiedek, and the other Study Participants


The goal of this study was to investigate the safety and tolerability of the novel endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist clazosentan in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and its potential to reduce the incidence and severity of cerebral vasospasm following surgical clipping of the aneurysm.


This Phase IIa multicenter study had two parts: a double-blind, randomized Part A (some patients given clazosentan [0.2 mg/kg/hr] and others given placebo), in which statistical inference was performed, and an open-label Part B (patients with established vasospasm given clazosentan [0.4 mg/kg/hr for 12 hours followed by 0.2 mg/kg/hr]) for exploratory purposes only. Primary end points were the incidence and severity of angiographic vasospasm on Day 8 after SAH and the safety and tolerability of the drug.

Thirty-four patients (Hunt and Hess Grades III and IV and Fisher Grade ≥3) were recruited and 32 (15 in the clazosentan group and 17 in the placebo group) were retained in the intent-to-treat population; 19 patients entered Part B. In Part A, treatment with clazosentan resulted in a reduced incidence of angiographically evident cerebral vasospasm (40% compared with 88% of patients, p = 0.008). In addition, the severity of vasospasm was reduced in the clazosentan group (p = 0.012). In Part B of the study, in 50% of assessable patients who were initially treated with placebo reversal of vasospasm was observed following the initiation of clazosentan therapy. The incidence of new infarctions was 15% in the clazosentan group and 44% in the placebo group (p = 0.130). There was no adverse event pattern indicating a specific organ toxicity of clazosentan.


This study indicates that clazosentan reduces the frequency and severity of cerebral vasospasm following severe aneurysmal SAH with the incidence and severity of adverse events comparable to that of placebo.

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Tizian Rosenstock, Levin Häni, Ulrike Grittner, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Meltem Ivren, Heike Schneider, Andreas Raabe, Peter Vajkoczy, Kathleen Seidel, and Thomas Picht


The authors sought to validate the navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)–based risk stratification model. The postoperative motor outcome in glioma surgery may be preoperatively predicted based on data derived by nTMS. The tumor-to-tract distance (TTD) and the interhemispheric resting motor threshold (RMT) ratio (as a surrogate parameter for cortical excitability) emerged as major factors related to a new postoperative deficit.


In this bicentric study, a consecutive prospectively collected cohort underwent nTMS mapping with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract prior to surgery of motor eloquent gliomas. The authors analyzed whether the following items were associated with the patient’s outcome: patient characteristics, TTD, RMT value, and diffusivity parameters (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). The authors assessed the validity of the published risk stratification model and derived a new model.


A new postoperative motor deficit occurred in 36 of 165 patients (22%), of whom 20 patients still had a deficit after 3 months (13%; n3 months = 152). nTMS-verified infiltration of the motor cortex as well as a TTD ≤ 8 mm were confirmed as risk factors. No new postoperative motor deficit occurred in patients with TTD > 8 mm. In contrast to the previous risk stratification, the RMT ratio was not substantially correlated with the motor outcome, but high RMT values of both the tumorous and healthy hemisphere were associated with worse motor outcome. The FA value was negatively associated with worsening of motor outcome. Accuracy analysis of the final model showed a high negative predictive value (NPV), so the preoperative application may accurately predict the preservation of motor function in particular (day of discharge: sensitivity 47.2%, specificity 90.7%, positive predictive value [PPV] 58.6%, NPV 86.0%; 3 months: sensitivity 85.0%, specificity 78.8%, PPV 37.8%, NPV 97.2%).


This bicentric validation analysis further improved the model by adding the FA value of the corticospinal tract, demonstrating the relevance of nTMS/nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking for clinical decision making.