Intraventricular anatomy has been detailed as it pertains to endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle, particularly for performing endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic colloid cyst resection. The expanding role of endoscopic surgery warrants a careful appraisal of these techniques as they relate to frequent anatomical variants. Given the common occurrence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum vergae (CV), the endoscopic surgeon should be familiar with that particular anatomy especially as it pertains to surgery within the third ventricle.
From a prospective database of endoscopic surgical cases were selected those cases in which the defined pathology necessitated surgery within the third ventricle and there was coexistent CSP and CV. Pertinent radiographic studies, operative notes, and archived video files were reviewed to define the relevant anatomy. Features of the intracavitary anatomy were assessed regarding their importance in approaching the third ventricle.
Four cases involving endoscopic surgery within the third ventricle (2 colloid cyst resections and 2 ETVs) were identified in which the surgical objective was accomplished through a septal cavum. In each case the width of the body of the lateral ventricle was reduced and the foramen of Monro was obscured. Because of the ventricular distortion, a stereotactic transcavum route was used for approaching the third ventricle. Entry into the third ventricle was accomplished through an interforniceal fenestration immediately behind the anterior commissure. The surgical goal was met in each case without any neurological change or postoperative morbidity. During the follow-up period, there has been no recurrence of a colloid cyst and no need of a secondary cerebrospinal fluid diversionary procedure.
In the presence of a CSP and CV, endoscopic navigation into the third ventricle can be problematic via a transforaminal approach. Alternatively, a transcavum interforniceal route for endoscopic surgery in the third ventricle is suggested, with the rostral lamina and the anterior commissure as important anatomical landmarks. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and endoscopic colloid cyst resection performed via a transcavum interforniceal route in patients with a coexistent septal cavum is a feasible and safe option.