Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Theodore H. Schwartz x
  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Ramakrishna, Rohan x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Iyan Younus, Mina Gerges, Theodore H. Schwartz, and Rohan Ramakrishna

OBJECTIVE

Despite the rise of studies in the neurosurgical literature suggesting that patients with Medicaid insurance have inferior outcomes, there remains a paucity of data on the impact of insurance on outcomes after endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS). Given the increasing importance of complications in quality-based healthcare metrics, the objective of this study was to assess whether Medicaid insurance type influences outcomes in EETS for pituitary adenoma.

METHODS

The authors analyzed a prospectively acquired database of EETS for pituitary adenoma from 2005 to 2018 at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine. All patients with Medicaid insurance were identified. As a control group, the clinical, socioeconomic, and radiographic data of all other patients in the series with non-Medicaid insurance were reviewed. Statistical significance was determined with an alpha < 0.05 using Pearson chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables and the independent-samples t-test for continuous variables.

RESULTS

Of 584 patients undergoing EETS for pituitary adenoma, 57 (10%) had Medicaid insurance. The maximum tumor diameter was significantly larger for Medicaid patients (26.1 ± 12 vs 23.1 ± 11 mm for controls, p < 0.05). Baseline comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking history, and BMI were not significantly different between Medicaid patients and controls. Patients with Medicaid insurance had a significantly higher rate of any complication (14% vs 7% for controls, p < 0.05) and long-term cranial neuropathy (5% vs 1% for controls, p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in endocrine outcome or vision outcome. The mean postoperative length of stay was significantly longer for Medicaid patients compared to the controls (9.4 ± 31 vs 3.6 ± 3 days, p < 0.05). This difference remained significant even when accounting for outliers (5.6 ± 2.5 vs 3.0 ± 2.7 days for controls, p < 0.05). The most common causes of extended length of stay greater than 1 standard deviation for Medicaid patients were management of perioperative complications and disposition challenges. The rate of 30-day readmission was 7% for Medicaid patients and 4.4% for controls, which was not a statistically significant difference.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that larger tumor diameter, longer postoperative length of stay, higher rate of complications, and long-term cranial neuropathy were significantly associated with Medicaid insurance. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline comorbidities, apoplexy, endocrine outcome, vision outcome, or 30-day readmission.

Restricted access

Iyan Younus, Mina M. Gerges, Georgiana A. Dobri, Rohan Ramakrishna, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Hospital readmission is a key component in value-based healthcare models but there are limited data about the 30-day readmission rate after endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for pituitary adenoma. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and identify factors associated with 30-day readmission after EETS for pituitary adenoma.

METHODS

The authors analyzed a prospectively acquired database of patients who underwent EETS for pituitary adenoma from 2005 to 2018 at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine. Clinical, socioeconomic, and radiographic data were reviewed for cases of unplanned readmission within 30 days of surgery and, as a control group, for all other patients in the series who were not readmitted. Statistical significance was determined with an alpha < 0.05 using Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables and the independent-samples t-test for continuous variables.

RESULTS

Of 584 patients undergoing EETS for pituitary adenoma, 27 (4.6%) had unplanned readmission within 30 days. Most readmissions occurred within the first week after surgery, with a mean time to readmission of 6.6 ± 3.9 days. The majority of readmissions (59%) were for hyponatremia. These patients had a mean sodium level of 120.6 ± 4.6 mEq/L at presentation. Other causes of readmission were epistaxis (11%), spinal headache (11%), sellar hematoma (7.4%), CSF leak (3.7%), nonspecific headache (3.7%), and pulmonary embolism (3.7%). The postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter for patients who were readmitted than for the controls (2.7 ± 1.0 days vs 3.9 ± 3.2 days; p < 0.05). Patients readmitted for hyponatremia had an initial length of stay of 2.6 ± 0.9 days, the shortest of any cause for readmission. The mean BMI was significantly lower for readmitted patients than for the controls (26.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2 vs 29.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2; p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Readmission after EETS for pituitary adenoma is a relatively rare phenomenon, with delayed hyponatremia being the primary cause. The study results demonstrate that shorter postoperative length of stay and lower BMI were associated with 30-day readmission.

Full access

Jonathan P. S. Knisely, Rohan Ramakrishna, and Theodore H. Schwartz

Restricted access

Iyan Younus, Mina M. Gerges, Saniya S. Godil, Rafael Uribe-Cardenas, Georgiana A. Dobri, Rohan Ramakrishna, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative sellar hematoma is an uncommon complication of endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for pituitary adenoma that often requires emergency surgical evacuation. Sellar hematomas can cause mass effect and compress parasellar structures, leading to clinically significant symptoms such as visual impairment and severe headache. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with reoperation for postoperative hematoma after EETS for pituitary adenoma.

METHODS

The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EETS for pituitary adenoma over 13 years at Weill Cornell Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and identified cases that required reoperation for confirmed hematoma. They also reviewed clinical and radiographic data of a consecutive series of patients undergoing EETS for pituitary adenoma who did not have postoperative hematoma, which served as the control group. Demographic data and risk factors were compared between the groups using univariate and multivariate analyses via binary logistic regression.

RESULTS

Among a cohort of 583 patients undergoing EETS for pituitary adenoma, 9 patients (1.5%) required operation for sellar hematoma evacuation. All 9 patients with reoperation for sellar hematoma presented with worsening in their vision, and severe headache was present in 67%. New postoperative endocrine dysfunction developed in 78%. Clot evacuation improved vision in 88%. The mean time to hematoma evacuation was 4.5 days. The median length of stay for patients with sellar hematoma was 8 days (range 4–210 days) compared with a median length of stay of 3 days (range 1–32 days) for the control patients (p < 0.005). Significant risk factors in univariate analysis were tumor diameter ≥ 30 mm (p < 0.005), suprasellar extension (p < 0.005), tumor volume (p < 0.005), cavernous sinus invasion (p < 0.05), gonadotroph histology (p < 0.05), antiplatelet use (p < 0.05), and elevated BMI (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, tumor diameter ≥ 30 mm (OR 4.555, CI 1.30–28.90; p < 0.05) and suprasellar extension (OR 1.048, CI 1.01–1.10; p < 0.05) were found to be the only independent predictors of sellar hematoma. The incidence of hematoma in tumors ≥ 30 mm was 5% (7/139).

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative sellar hematoma requiring reoperation is a rare phenomenon after transsphenoidal surgery, often presenting with visual loss and headache. Clot evacuation results in improvement in vision, but long-term endocrinopathy often ensues. Tumor diameter ≥ 30 mm and suprasellar extent are the most reliable risk factors. Close postoperative scrutiny should be given to patients at high risk.

Free access

Swathi Chidambaram, Susan C. Pannullo, Michelle Roytman, David J. Pisapia, Benjamin Liechty, Rajiv S. Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna, Philip E. Stieg, Theodore H. Schwartz, and Jana Ivanidze

OBJECTIVE

There is a need for advanced imaging biomarkers to improve radiation treatment planning and response assessment. T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI (DCE MRI) allows quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion and blood-brain barrier dysfunction and has entered clinical practice in the management of primary and secondary brain neoplasms. The authors sought to retrospectively investigate DCE MRI parameters in meningiomas treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy using volumetric segmentation.

METHODS

A retrospective review of more than 300 patients with meningiomas resected between January 2015 and December 2018 identified 14 eligible patients with 18 meningiomas who underwent resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients were excluded if they did not undergo adjuvant radiation therapy or DCE MRI. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained and compared to DCE perfusion metrics, including mean plasma volume (v p), extracellular volume (v e), volume transfer constant (K trans), rate constant (k ep), and wash-in rate of contrast into the tissue, which were derived from volumetric analysis of the enhancing volumes of interest.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 64 years (range 49–86 years), and 50% of patients (7/14) were female. The average tumor volume was 8.07 cm3 (range 0.21–27.89 cm3). The median Ki-67 in the cohort was 15%. When stratified by median Ki-67, patients with Ki-67 greater than 15% had lower median v p (0.02 vs 0.10, p = 0.002), and lower median wash-in rate (1.27 vs 4.08 sec−1, p = 0.04) than patients with Ki-67 of 15% or below. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant, moderate positive correlation between v e and time to progression (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between K trans and time to progression, which approached, but did not reach, statistical significance (r = 0.48, p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates a potential role for DCE MRI in the preoperative characterization and stratification of meningiomas, laying the foundation for future prospective studies incorporating DCE as a biomarker in meningioma diagnosis and treatment planning.

Full access

A. Gabriella Wernicke, Andrew W. Smith, Shoshana Taube, Menachem Z. Yondorf, Bhupesh Parashar, Samuel Trichter, Lucy Nedialkova, Albert Sabbas, Paul Christos, Rohan Ramakrishna, Susan C. Pannullo, Philip E. Stieg, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Managing patients whose intraparenchymal brain metastases recur after radiotherapy remains a challenge. Intraoperative cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy performed at the time of neurosurgical resection may represent an excellent salvage treatment option. The authors evaluated the outcomes of this novel treatment with permanent intraoperative Cs-131 brachytherapy.

METHODS

Thirteen patients with 15 metastases to the brain that recurred after stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy were treated between 2010 and 2015. Stranded Cs-131 seeds were placed as a permanent volume implant. Prescription dose was 80 Gy at 5-mm depth from the resection cavity surface. The primary end point was resection cavity freedom from progression (FFP). Resection cavity freedom from progression (FFP), regional FFP, distant FFP, median survival, overall survival (OS), and toxicity were assessed.

RESULTS

The median duration of follow-up after salvage treatment was 5 months (range 0.5–18 months). The patients' median age was 64 years (range 51–74 years). The median resected tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range 1.0–5.6 cm). The median number of seeds implanted was 19 (range 10–40), with a median activity per seed of 2.25 U (range 1.98–3.01 U) and median total activity of 39.6 U (range 20.0–95.2 U). The 1-year actuarial local FFP was 83.3%. The median OS was 7 months, and 1-year OS was 24.7%. Complications included infection (3), pseudomeningocele (1), seizure (1), and asymptomatic radionecrosis (RN) (1).

CONCLUSIONS

After failure of prior irradiation of brain metastases, re-irradiation with intraoperative Cs-131 brachytherapy implants provides durable local control and limits the risk of RN. The authors' initial experience demonstrates that this treatment approach is well tolerated and safe for patients with previously irradiated tumors after failure of more than 1 radiotherapy regimen and that it results in excellent response rates and minimal toxicity.

Restricted access

Diana A. Roth O’Brien, Sydney M. Kaye, Phillip J. Poppas, Sean S. Mahase, Anjile An, Paul J. Christos, Benjamin Liechty, David Pisapia, Rohan Ramakrishna, AG Wernicke, Jonathan P. S. Knisely, Susan C. Pannullo, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Publications on adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are largely limited to patients completing SRS within a specified time frame. The authors assessed real-world local recurrence (LR) for all brain metastasis (BM) patients referred for SRS and identified predictors of SRS timing.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified BM patients undergoing resection and referred for SRS between 2012 and 2018. Patients were categorized by time to SRS, as follows: 1) ≤ 4 weeks, 2) > 4–8 weeks, 3) > 8 weeks, and 4) never completed. The relationships between timing of SRS and LR, LR-free survival (LRFS), and survival were investigated, as well as predictors of and reasons for specific SRS timing.

RESULTS

In a cohort of 159 patients, the median age at resection was 64.0 years, 56.5% of patients were female, and 57.2% were in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II. The median preoperative tumor diameter was 2.9 cm, and gross-total resection was achieved in 83.0% of patients. All patients were referred for SRS, but 20 (12.6%) did not receive it. The LR rate was 22.6%, and the time to SRS was correlated with the LR rate: 2.3% for patients receiving SRS at ≤ 4 weeks postoperatively, 14.5% for SRS at > 4–8 weeks (p = 0.03), and 48.5% for SRS at > 8 weeks (p < 0.001). No LR difference was seen between patients whose SRS was delayed by > 8 weeks and those who never completed SRS (48.5% vs 50.0%; p = 0.91). A similar relationship emerged between time to SRS and LRFS (p < 0.01). Non–small cell lung cancer pathology (p = 0.04), earlier year of treatment (p < 0.01), and interval from brain MRI to SRS (p < 0.01) were associated with longer intervals to SRS. The rates of receipt of systemic therapy also differed significantly between patients by category of time to SRS (p = 0.02). The most common reasons for intervals of > 4–8 weeks were logistic, whereas longer delays or no SRS were caused by management of systemic disease or comorbidities.

CONCLUSIONS

Available data on LR rates after adjuvant SRS are often obtained from carefully preselected patients receiving timely treatment, whereas significantly less information is available on the efficacy of adjuvant SRS in patients treated under “real-world” conditions. Management of these patients may merit reconsideration, particularly when SRS is not delivered within ≤ 4 weeks of resection. The results of this study indicate that a substantial number of patients referred for SRS either never receive it or are treated > 8 weeks postoperatively, at which time the SRS-treated patients have an LR risk equivalent to that of patients who never received SRS. Increased attention to the reasons for prolonged intervals from surgery to SRS and strategies for reducing them is needed to optimize treatment. For patients likely to experience delays, other radiotherapy techniques may be considered.