✓ Sixty-five carotid-cavernous fistulas were studied at University Hospital, London, Canada, from 1978 to 1982, 20 of which fulfilled the clinical and angiographic criteria of a spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistula. Of these 20 fistulas, 17 were unilateral, and three were bilateral. In 18 cases the angiographic findings were typical of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and in two a ruptured giant intracavernous aneurysm was found. These patients were treated according to whether they had a nonresolving or progressive cavernous sinus syndrome or deterioration of vision. The cavernous dural AVM's were treated with polyvinyl-alcohol and/or isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate (IBCA) embolization of the external carotid artery blood supply. Two patients underwent postembolization surgical procedures. The detachable balloon technique was used to occlude the fistulas associated with the two giant ruptured intracavernous aneurysms and a small dural intracavernous AVM. Eight patients received no therapy; in two, spontaneous obliteration of the fistula occurred. Of the nine cavernous AVM's embolized with particles and/or IBCA, successful transvascular embolization was achieved in seven cases, and partial embolization followed by surgery in two cases. Successful balloon obliteration of the giant intracavernous ruptured aneurysm was obtained in two cases. In one patient, right hemiplegia with aphasia resulted from reflux of IBCA emboli through the artery of the foramen rotundum into the left middle cerebral artery.
Experience with 20 cases
Fernando Viñuela, Allan J. Fox, Gerard M. Debrun, Sydney J. Peerless, and Charles G. Drake
Allan J. Fox, Fernando Viñuela, David M. Pelz, Sydney J. Peerless, Gary G. Ferguson, Charles G. Drake, and Gerard Debrun
✓ Of 68 patients with unclippable aneurysms treated by proximal artery occlusion with detachable balloons, permanent occlusion was achieved in 65; of these patients, 37 had carotid artery aneurysms below the origin of the ophthalmic artery, 21 had aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the carotid artery, six had basilar trunk aneurysms, and one had a distal vertebral aneurysm. Examination for treatment selection included assessment of the circle of Willis by compression angiography and xenon blood flow studies, with the ultimate evaluation being test occlusion under systemic heparinization with the balloon temporarily placed in the desired position. Of 67 patients who underwent a formal occlusion test, eight with carotid artery aneurysms did not initially tolerate the occlusion test, and ischemic signs disappeared instantaneously with deflation and removal of the balloon. During test occlusion, two additional patients had ischemic events that proved to be embolic; these reversed immediately upon balloon deflation.
Of the 65 patients in whom permanent occlusion was effected by detachable balloon, there were nine instances of delayed cerebral events. One of these was a seizure leading to respiratory arrest and resuscitation 3 days following occlusion in a patient who had presented with seizures. The other eight cases were delayed ischemic events; seven were completely reversed and one patient had residual weakness in one leg (1.5% permanent morbidity). Extracranial-intracranial bypass procedures were performed in 25 of the 65 cases. All aneurysms of the carotid artery below the level of the ophthalmic artery presented angiographic proof of complete thrombosis. Ten of 21 aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the carotid artery were completely thrombosed by proximal occlusion alone, without additional trapping procedures. Similarly, in three of six basilar trunk aneurysms, proximal occlusion alone initiated complete aneurysm thrombosis without trapping. The conclusion is that proximal balloon occlusion for unclippable cerebral aneurysms is a convenient, safe, and effective way of producing arterial occlusion in these cases.