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  • Author or Editor: Kevin P. McMullen x
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Paul K. Kim, Thomas L. Ellis, Volker W. Stieber, Kevin P. McMullen, Edward G. Shaw, Thomas P. McCoy, Ralph B. D'Agostino, J. Daniel Bourland, Allan F. deGuzman, Kenneth E. Ekstrand, Michael R. Raber, and Stephen B. Tatter

Object

Salvage treatment of large, symptomatic brain metastases after failure of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) remains challenging. When these lesions require resection, there are few options to lower expected rates of local recurrence at the resection cavity margin. The authors describe their experience in using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) to target the resection cavity in patients whose tumors had progressed after WBRT.

Methods

The authors retrospectively identified 143 patients in whom GKS had been used to target a brain metastasis resection cavity between 2000 and 2005. Seventy-nine of these patients had undergone WBRT prior to resection and GKS. The median patient age was 53 years, and the median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range 8–24 Gy), with resection cavities of relatively larger volume (> 15 cm3). The GKS dose was prescribed at the 40 to 95% isodose contour (mode 50%).

Local recurrence within 1 cm of the treatment volume occurred in four (5.1%) of 79 cases. The median duration of time to local recurrence was 6.1 months (range 2–13 months). The median duration of time to occurrence of distant metastases following GKS of the resection cavity was 10.8 months (range 2–86 months). Carcinomatous meningitis developed in four (5.1%) of 79 cases. Symptomatic radionecrosis requiring surgical treatment occurred in three (3.8%) of 79 cases. The median duration of survival following GKS of the resection cavity was 69.6 weeks. The median 2- and 5-year survival rates were 20.2 and 6.3%, respectively.

Conclusions

When metastases progress after WBRT and require resection, GKS targeting the resection cavity is a viable strategy. In 75 (94.9%) of 79 cases, GKS of the resection cavity in patients in whom WBRT had failed appears to have achieved its goal of local disease control.

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Courtney A. Jensen, Michael D. Chan, Thomas P. McCoy, J. Daniel Bourland, Allan F. deGuzman, Thomas L. Ellis, Kenneth E. Ekstrand, Kevin P. McMullen, Michael T. Munley, Edward G. Shaw, James J. Urbanic, and Stephen B. Tatter

Object

As a strategy to delay or avoid whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) after resection of a brain metastasis, the authors used high-resolution MR imaging and cavity-directed radiosurgery for the detection and treatment of further metastases.

Methods

Between April 2001 and October 2009, 112 resection cavities in 106 patients with no prior WBRT were treated using radiosurgery directed to the tumor cavity and for any synchronous brain metastases detected on high-resolution MR imaging at the time of radiosurgical planning. A median dose of 17 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the gross tumor volume, defined as the rim of enhancement around the resection cavity. Patients were followed up via serial imaging, and new brain metastases were generally treated using additional radiosurgery, with salvage WBRT typically reserved for local treatment failure at a resection cavity, numerous failures, or failures occurring at short time intervals. Local and distant treatment failures were determined based on imaging results. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to estimate local and distant treatment failure rates, overall survival, neurological cause–specific survival, and time delay to salvage WBRT.

Results

Radiosurgery was delivered to the resection cavity alone in 57.5% of patients, whereas 24.5% of patients also received treatment for 1 synchronous metastasis, 11.3% also received treatment for 2 synchronous metastases, and 6.6% also received treatment for 3–10 additional lesions. The median overall survival was 10.9 months. Overall survival at 1 year was 46.8%. The local tumor control rate at 1 year was 80.3%. The disease control rate in distant regions of the brain at 1 year was 35.4%, with a median time of 6.9 months to distant failure. Thirty-nine of 106 patients eventually received salvage WBRT, and the median time to salvage WBRT was 12.6 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that the rate of requisite WBRT at 1 year was 45.9%. Neurological cause–specific survival at 1 year was 50.1%. Leptomeningeal failure occurred in 8 patients. One patient had treatment failure within the resection tract. Seven patients required reoperation: 2 for resection cavity recurrence, 3 for radiation necrosis, 1 for hydrocephalus, and 1 for a CSF cutaneous fistula. On multivariate analysis, a preoperative tumor diameter > 3 cm was predictive of local treatment failure.

Conclusions

Cavity-directed radiosurgery combined with high-resolution MR imaging detection and radiosurgical treatment of synchronous brain metastases is an effective strategy for delaying and even foregoing WBRT in most patients. This technique provides acceptable local disease control, although distant treatment failure remains significant.