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Juergen Konczalla, Volker Seifert, Juergen Beck, Erdem Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Andreas Raabe, and Gerhard Marquardt

OBJECTIVE

Outcome analysis of comatose patients (Hunt and Hess Grade V) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still lacking. The aims of this study were to analyze the outcome of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH and to compare outcomes in the current period with those of the pre–International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) era as well as with published data from trials of decompressive craniectomy (DC) for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction.

METHODS

The authors analyzed cases of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH from 1980–1995 (referred to in this study as the earlier period) and 2005–2014 (current period) and compared the results for the 2 periods. The outcomes of 257 cases were analyzed and stratified on the basis of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores obtained 6 months after SAH. Outcomes were dichotomized as favorable (mRS score of 0–2) or unfavorable (mRS score of 3–6). Data and number needed to treat (NNT) were also compared with the results of decompressive craniectomy (DC) trials for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions.

RESULTS

Early aneurysm treatment within 72 hours occurred significantly more often in the current period (in 67% of cases vs 22% in earlier period). In the earlier period, patients had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate (83% vs 39% in the current period) and 6-month mortality rate (94% vs 49%), and no patient (0%) had a favorable outcome, compared with 23% overall in the current period (p < 0.01, OR 32), or 29.5% of patients whose aneurysms were treated (p < 0.01, OR 219). Cerebral infarctions occurred in up to 65% of the treated patients in the current period.

Comparison with data from DC MCA trials showed that the NNTs were significantly lower in the current period with 2 for survival and 3 for mRS score of 0–3 (vs 3 and 7, respectively, for the DC MCA trials).

CONCLUSIONS

Early and aggressive treatment resulted in a significant improvement in survival rate (NNT = 2) and favorable outcome (NNT = 3 for mRS score of 0–3) for comatose patients with Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH compared with the earlier period. Independent predictors for favorable outcome were younger age and bilateral intact corneal reflexes. Despite a high rate of cerebral infarction (65%) in the current period, 29.5% of the patients who received treatment for their aneurysms during the current era (2005–2014) had a favorable outcome. However, careful individual decision making is essential in these cases.

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Rüdiger Gerlach, Gerhard Marquardt, Heimo Wissing, Inge Scharrer, Andreas Raabe, and Volker Seifert

✓ The authors report on a 64-year-old woman with a huge recurrent skull base hemangiopericytoma, in whom they encountered severe difficulty in attaining intraoperative hemostasis. Standard surgical hemostatic methods and the administration of fresh-frozen plasma and prothrombin complex concentrates failed to stop diffuse bleeding from an inoperable tumor remnant. At a critical point during the operation, the intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VII, combined with mechanical compression, finally led to satisfactory hemostasis. The rationale for using recombinant activated factor VII in situations of uncontrolled bleeding during neurosurgical procedures is discussed, along with the literature in which the use of recombinant activated factor VII as a maneuver of last resort is reported for hemostasis in other surgical fields.

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Elke Hattingen, Catriona Good, Stefan Weidauer, Sebastian Herminghaus, Peter Raab, Gerhard Marquardt, Andreas Raabe, Volker Seifert, and Friedhelm E. Zanella

Object. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel form of brain surface representation that allows simple, reliable mapping of the surface neuroanatomy for the preoperative evaluation of the spatial relationship between a focal lesion and the precentral gyrus.

Methods. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data sets were postprocessed using a curved multiplanar reformatting technique to create brain surface reformatted (BSR) images. These BSR images were reconstructed in less than 5 minutes and demonstrated the entire central sulcus with adjacent surface structures in one view. Two experienced neuroradiologists determined the localization of lesions near the central sulcus in 27 patients on standard MR images in three orthogonal planes and on BSR images. In addition, these observers judged whether the lesions were easy or difficult to localize on standard MR and BSR images, and whether diagnoses based on these methods were certain or doubtful. Anatomical localization based on BSR images was compared with that based on functional MR (fMR) images or intraoperative mapping of motor function. The BSR images yielded a perfect concordance with the fMR images and intraoperative mapping (Cohen κ 1.0) and optimal diagnostic accuracy in localizing perirolandic lesions (both sensitivity and specificity were 100%). Localization was judged to be easy for 48 of 54 diagnoses based on BSR images compared with 26 of 54 based on standard MR images. Diagnoses were assessed as certain for 52 cases based on BSR images and 34 cases based on standard MR images.

Conclusions. Brain surface reformatted imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy of standard anatomical MR imaging for localizing superficial brain lesions in relation to the precentral gyrus. The complementary use of this technique with standard two-dimensional imaging is supported by the fast and simple postprocessing technique and may provide useful information for preoperative surgical planning.