The clinical outcome of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH) is rarely reported in a comprehensive way. In this cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis of patients with pICH, the authors aimed to describe the basic clinical outcomes of pICH.
Children who received treatment for pICH at the authors’ institution were prospectively enrolled in the cohort in 2008; data since 2000 were retrospectively included, and data through October 2019 were analyzed. The authors then searched PubMed and conducted a systematic review of relevant articles published since 1990. Data from the identified populations and patients from the cohort study were pooled into a multicategory meta-analysis and analyzed with regard to clinical outcomes.
Among 243 children screened for inclusion, 231 patients were included. The median (IQR) age at ictus was 9.6 (4.6–12.5) years, and 128 patients (53%) were male. After a median (IQR) follow-up of 33 (13–63) months, 132 patients (57.4%) had a favorable clinical outcome, of whom 58 (44%) had no residual symptoms. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the proportion of children with complete recovery was 27% (95% CI 19%–36%; Q = 49.6; I2 = 76%); of those with residual deficits, the complete recovery rate was 48.1% (95% CI 40%–57%; Q = 75.3; I2 = 81%). When pooled with the cohort study, the aggregate case-fatality rate at the last follow-up was 17.3% (95% CI 12%–24%; Q = 101.6; I2 = 81%).
Here, the authors showed that 1 in 6 children died after pICH, and the majority of children had residual neurological deficits at the latest follow-up. Results from the cohort study also indicate that children with vascular lesions as the etiology of pICH had significantly better clinical functional outcomes.