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Yuichi Murayama, Fernando Viñuela, Gary R. Duckwiler, Y. Pierre Gobin, and Guido Guglielmi

Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) technology is a valuable therapeutic alternative to the surgical treatment of ruptured or incidental intracranial aneurysms. The authors describe their technical and clinical experience in the utilization of the GDC technique in patients who underwent endovascular occlusion for the treatment of incidentally found intracranial aneurysms.

One hundred fifteen patients with 120 incidentally found intracranial aneurysms underwent embolization using the GDC endovascular technique. Ninety-one patients were female and 24 were male. Patient age ranged from 13 to 80 years. In 64 patients the incidental aneurysms were discovered when unrelated nonneurological conditions indicated the need for angiography or magnetic resonance angiography (Group 1). Twenty patients who presented with incidental aneurysms that were discovered during treatment for an acutely ruptured aneurysm were treated in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (Group 2). Sixteen patients with incidental aneurysms were treated during the chronic phase of SAH (Group 3). Group 4 included 15 patients who had incidental aneurysms associated with brain tumors or arteriovenous malformations.

Angiographic results showed complete or near complete occlusion in 109 aneurysms (91%) and incomplete occlusion in five aneurysms (4%). Unsuccessful GDC embolization was attempted in six aneurysms (5%). One hundred nine patients (94.8%) remained neurologically intact or unchanged from initial clinical status. Five patients (4.3%) deteriorated due to immediate procedural complications (overall immediate morbidity rate). All of these complications occurred in the first 50 patients treated earlier in this series. No clinical complications were observed in the last 65 patients. Follow-up cerebral angiograms were obtained in 77 patients with 79 aneurysms. The median clinical follow-up period was 16.3 months.

No recanalization was observed in the 52 completely occluded aneurysms. Of the 22 aneurysms with small neck remnants, eight (36%) showed further thrombosis, 7 (32%) remained anatomically unchanged, and seven (32%) showed recanalization due to compaction of the coils. In one patient, a partially embolized aneurysm ruptured 3 years postembolization. In Groups 1 and 3, the average length of hospitalization was 3.3 days.

The evolution of the GDC technology has proved to provide safe treatment of incidental aneurysms (a morbidity rate of 0% was achieved in the last 65 patients). The topography of the aneurysm and the clinical condition of the patient did not influence final anatomical or clinical outcomes. The GDC technology also confers a positive economical impact by decreasing hospital length of stay and by eliminating the need for postembolization intensive care unit care.

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Ken Uda, Yuichi Murayama, Y. Pierre Gobin, Gary R. Duckwiler, and Fernando Viñuela

Object. The authors present a retrospective analysis of their clinical experience in the endovascular treatment of basilar artery (BA) trunk aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs).

Methods. Between April 1990 and June 1999, 41 BA trunk aneurysms were treated in 39 patients by inserting GDCs. Twenty-seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, six had intracranial mass effect, and in six patients the aneurysms were found incidentally. Eighteen lesions were BA trunk aneurysms, 13 were BA—superior cerebellar artery aneurysms, four were BA—anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms, and six were vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms. Thirty-five patients (89.7%) had excellent or good clinical outcomes; procedural morbidity and mortality rates were 2.6% each. Thirty-six aneurysms were selectively occluded while preserving the parent artery, and in five cases the parent artery was occluded along with the aneurysm. Immediate angiographic studies revealed complete or nearly complete occlusion in 35 aneurysms (85.4%). Follow-up angiograms were obtained in 29 patients with 31 aneurysms; the mean follow-up period was 17 months. No recanalization was observed in the eight completely occluded aneurysms. In 19 lesions with small neck remnants, seven (36.8%) had further thrombosis, three (15.8%) remained anatomically unchanged, and nine (47.3%) had recanalization caused by coil compaction. In one patient (2.6%) the aneurysm rebled 8 years after the initial embolization.

Conclusions. In this clinical series the authors show that the GDC placement procedure is valuable in the therapeutic management of BA trunk aneurysms. The endovascular catheterization of these lesions tends to be relatively simple, in contrast with more complex neurosurgical approaches. Endosaccular obliteration of these aneurysms also decreases the possibility of unwanted occlusion of perforating arteries to the brainstem.

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Yuichi Murayama, Fernando Viñuela, Gary R. Duckwiler, Y. Pierre Gobin, and Guido Guglielmi

Object. Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) technology is a valuable therapeutic alternative to the surgical treatment of ruptured or incidental intracranial aneurysms. The authors describe their technical and clinical experience in the use of the GDC technique in patients who underwent endovascular occlusion for the treatment of incidentally found intracranial aneurysms.

Methods. One hundred fifteen patients with 120 incidentally found intracranial aneurysms underwent embolization by means of the GDC endovascular technique. Ninety-one patients were females and 24 were males. Patient age ranged from 13 to 80 years. In 64 patients the incidental aneurysms were discovered when unrelated nonneurological conditions signaled the need for angiography or magnetic resonance angiography (Group 1). Twenty patients who presented with incidental aneurysms that were discovered during treatment for an acutely ruptured aneurysm underwent treatment of both types of aneurysm during the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (Group 2). Sixteen patients with incidental aneurysms were treated during the chronic phase of SAH (Group 3). Group 4 included 15 patients who had incidental aneurysms associated with brain tumors or arteriovenous malformations.

Angiographic results revealed complete or near-complete occlusion in 109 aneurysms (91%) and incomplete occlusion in five aneurysms (4%). Guglielmi detachable coil embolization was attempted unsuccessfully in six aneurysms (5%). One hundred nine patients (94.8%) remained neurologically intact or unchanged from their initial clinical status. Five patients (4.3%) deteriorated as a result of immediate procedural complications. All these complications occurred in the first 50 patients treated in the series. No clinical complications were observed in the last 65 patients. In one patient, a partially embolized aneurysm ruptured 3 years postprocedure. In Groups 1 and 3, the average length of hospitalization was 3.3 days.

Conclusions. The evolution of GDC technology has proved to provide safe treatment of incidental aneurysms (a morbidity rate of 0% was achieved in the last 65 patients). The topography of the aneurysm and the clinical condition of the patient did not influence final anatomical or clinical outcomes. The GDC technology also confers a positive economic impact by decreasing hospital length of stay and by eliminating the need for postembolization intensive care.

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Zhong-Song Shi, Yince Loh, Gary R. Duckwiler, Reza Jahan, and Fernando Viñuela

Object

The authors report their preliminary experience using a balloon-assisted technique (BAT) in the transarterial embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs).

Methods

The authors reviewed the prospectively collected data obtained in 7 consecutive patients with DAVFs in whom embolization was achieved using transarterially injected Onyx with either the venous or arterial BAT. Procedures were performed at the Division of Interventional Neuroradiology at the University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center between September 2005 and January 2008.

Results

Three patients presented with cortical venous reflux and 4 did not. Three patients underwent transarterial Onyx-based embolization combined with transvenous balloon protection; the balloon was inflated in the transverse sinus in 2 of these patients and in the superior sagittal sinus in the third. One of them underwent an additional transarterial Onyx embolization with arterial BAT, whereas 4 other patients were treated with arterial BAT alone. The occipital artery was temporarily occluded with the balloon in 4 of these cases, whereas in the fifth, the authors used temporary balloon occlusion of the middle meningeal artery. Angiograms obtained immediately after embolization demonstrated complete or near-complete obliteration of the fistula in 6 patients and partial occlusion in 1 patient. There were no immediate or postprocedural complications. Two patients who presented with intracranial hemorrhage never suffered a second hemorrhage, and all other patients experienced either complete resolution or significant improvement of their symptoms.

Conclusions

The BAT provides a new complementary method in the transarterial embolization of DAVFs that are not amenable to transvenous embolization. The venous BAT protects the patency of critical venous pathways, whereas the arterial BAT provides better control of the Onyx-based embolization.

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John H. Gurian, Neil A. Martin, Wesley A. King, Gary R. Duckwiler, Guido Guglielmi, and Fernando Viñuela

✓ Modern endovascular techniques permit treatment of intracranial aneurysms in many circumstances when surgery is associated with significant morbidity. Occasionally, embolization of aneurysms is unsuccessful or incomplete or followed by complications, in which case surgical management is required. Since 1986, 196 patients have undergone embolization of intracranial aneurysms at the authors' institution and 21 (11%) required subsequent surgical treatment. Attempted embolization failed in five patients (Group A). Ten patients (Group B) had only partial occlusion of the aneurysm or demonstrated recanalization on follow-up studies. Eight of these Group B patients underwent embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs), representing 5.7% of the 141 GDC-treated patients in this experience. Surgical treatment in these two groups consisted of clipping (eight cases), surgical parent vessel occlusion (one case), and parent vessel occlusion with extracranial—intracranial bypass (six cases). Fourteen (93%) of the 15 patients in these two groups had an excellent or good outcome with complete aneurysm occlusion. Six patients underwent surgery to treat complications related to the endovascular procedure (Group C). Of these, four patients had neurological improvement compared to their preoperative state, and two died. This series of cases demonstrates that surgical treatment of aneurysms is usually possible with good results following incomplete embolization and emphasizes the need for close and continued neurosurgical involvement in the endovascular management of intracranial aneurysms.

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John C. Chaloupka, David Goller, Robert A. Goldberg, Gary R. Duckwiler, Neil A. Martin, and Fernando Viñuela

✓ An unusual case of complete anatomical compartmentalization of the cavernous sinus in a patient with bilateral Type D cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulae is described. This anatomical anomaly isolated the anterior cavernous sinus and orbital venous system, which was primarily responsible for the patient's clinical presentation. The compartmentalization of the cavernous sinus also limited options for definitive endovascular therapy to a transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

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Motoharu Hayakawa, Yuichi Murayama, Gary R. Duckwiler, Y. Pierre Gobin, Guido Guglielmi, and Fernando Viñuela

Object. The long-term durability of Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) embolization of cerebral aneurysms is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical evolution of neck remnants in aneurysms treated with GDCs.

Methods. Of 455 aneurysms treated with GDCs from 1990 to 1998 at the University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center, 178 aneurysms (39%) had residual necks postembolization. Long-term follow-up angiograms were obtained in 73 of these aneurysms in 71 patients. The mean duration of angiographic follow up was 17.3 months. Twenty-four of the aneurysms were small with small necks, 24 were small with wide necks, 15 were large, and 10 were giant aneurysms.

In small aneurysms with small necks, postembolization angiography revealed 12 aneurysms (50%) with progressive thrombosis, eight (33%) unchanged, and four (17%) with recanalization. In small aneurysms with wide necks, six (25%) had progressive thrombosis, eight (33%) remained unchanged, and 10 (42%) had recanalization. In large aneurysms, two (13%) were unchanged and 13 (87%) had recanalization. Of the giant aneurysms only one (10%) remained unchanged and nine (90%) had recanalization. Overall, 18 aneurysms (25%) exhibited progressive thrombosis, 19 (26%) remained unchanged, and 36 (49%) displayed recanalization on follow-up angiography. During the last 2 years of the study, the recanalization rate decreased and a higher rate of progressive thrombosis was noted in aneurysms with small necks. These positive changes are related to important new technical developments.

Conclusions. Treatment with GDCs appears to be effective and the results permanent in most small aneurysms with small necks. However, there are important technical limitations in the current GDC technology that prevent recanalization in wide-necked or large or giant aneurysms.

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Kristen Upchurch, Lei Feng, Gary R. Duckwiler, John G. Frazee, Neil A. Martin, and Fernando Viñuela

✓ Nongalenic cerebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are uncommon, high-flow vascular lesions first treated by Walter Dandy and his colleagues by using open surgery with ligation of the feeding artery. Due to advances in endovascular technology over the past four decades that make possible the control of high flow in AVFs, treatment has evolved from the sole option of surgery to include the alternative or adjunct option of endovascular embolization. The authors of this review discuss the history of nongalenic AVF treatment, including techniques of both surgery and interventional neuroradiology and the technological developments underlying them.

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Y. Pierre Gobin, Fernando Viñuela, John H. Gurian, Guido Guglielmi, Gary R. Duckwiler, Tarik F. Massoud, and Neil A. Martin

✓ Results in nine patients with large or giant fusiform intracranial aneurysms that were treated with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) are reported. There were six males and three females between the ages of 12 and 63. Four patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and four with mass effect; in one patient the aneurysm was asymptomatic and located in an arterial feeder of an arteriovenous malformation. Five aneurysms were supratentorial and four were in the posterior fossa. Five were giant and four were large. Selective occlusion with preservation of the parent artery was attempted in three cases, and complete occlusion of the aneurysm and the parent artery was performed in six patients. The tolerance to parent artery occlusion was assessed by angiography, balloon test occlusion, and amytal testing. Six aneurysms were permanently occluded and two partially recanalized. In one case, GDC embolization was not possible.

The four patients who presented with SAH made an excellent clinical recovery. Three of the four patients presenting with mass effect recovered completely and one remained unchanged. The patient with an incidental aneurysm remained asymptomatic. There were no permanent complications. In conclusion, GDCs were useful for the occlusion of large and giant intradural fusiform aneurysms. Occlusion of the aneurysm and the parent artery afforded the greatest opportunity for a complete cure. Advantages of GDCs compared to balloons include: occlusion of a shorter segment of normal artery, no traction on the parent vessel, and safer and easier catheterization techniques.