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Justin K. Scheer, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Vedat Deviren, Richard Hostin, Ian M. McCarthy, Gregory M. Mundis, Douglas C. Burton, Eric Klineberg, Munish C. Gupta, Khaled M. Kebaish, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames, and the International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

follows: bowel and/or bladder deficit, death, deep vein thrombosis, deep infection, motor deficit, myocardial infarction, optical deficit, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, reintubation, sepsis, stroke, acute respiratory distress, pancreatitis, tracheostomy, unplanned return to the operating room, and arrhythmia. Patients were stratified by age: ≤ 45 years (young), 46–64 years (middle aged), and ≥ 65 years (elderly). Health-related QOL measures, including the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain assessment, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

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Justin K. Scheer, Jessica A. Tang, Justin S. Smith, Eric Klineberg, Robert A. Hart, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Douglas C. Burton, Richard Hostin, Michael F. O'Brien, Shay Bess, Khaled M. Kebaish, Vedat Deviren, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames, and the International Spine Study Group

return to the operating room as a result of the original surgery. The reoperation indications were divided into the following categories: instrumentation malposition/rod fracture, radiographic (proximal junction failure, distal junction failure, pseudarthrosis, coronal malalignment) neurological compromise, infection, medical (cardiopulmonary, vascular gastrointestinal, renal), operative, and wound. The instrumentation malposition/fracture category described situations in which there was implant failure or migration, malpositioning, painful implants, or bony fracture