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Hirotaka Hasegawa, Jamie J. Van Gompel, W. Richard Marsh, Robert E. Wharen Jr., Richard S. Zimmerman, David B. Burkholder, Brian N. Lundstrom, Jeffrey W. Britton, and Fredric B. Meyer

= responsive neurostimulation; SEEG = stereoelectroencephalography. * At the time of VNS placement. † Done at an outside hospital. Establishment of VNS-SSI Among the 16 cases of VNS-SSI, 11 occurred after initial VNS placement and 5 occurred after generator replacement, with 2 of the former and 2 of the latter having undergone the original surgery leading to infection at an outside hospital ( Fig. 1 ). Therefore, the incidence of infection for surgeries performed at our institutions was 1.5% (12/808). Among the institutional cases, the incidence of VNS-SSI did not differ

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Sanjeet S. Grewal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, William J. Perkins, Gregory D. Cascino, Jeffrey W. Britton, David B. Burkholder, Elson So, Cheolsu Shin, Richard W. Marsh, Fredric B. Meyer, Gregory A. Worrell, and Jamie J. Van Gompel

be extended based on ECoG findings; however, eloquent areas (speech) are spared ( Fig. 1 ). In the future, adjunctive therapies such as responsive neurostimulation 11 or chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation 14 , 16 could be applied to eloquent areas and could potentially prevent recurrence. Study Limitations Although we have provided the largest review to date on the use of preoperative EEG and intraoperative ECoG and on the outcomes of epilepsy surgery for TLE, our study has limitations. The biggest limitation is the retrospective nature of the study. Scalp