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Hideyuki Kano, Douglas Kondziolka, John C. Flickinger, Huai-che Yang, Thomas J. Flannery, Nasir R. Awan, Ajay Niranjan, Josef Novotny Jr., and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

The object of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and risks of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for incompletely obliterated cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods

Between 1987 and 2006, Gamma Knife surgery was performed in 996 patients with AVMs. During this period, repeat SRS was performed in 105 patients who had incompletely obliterated AVMs at a median of 40.9 months after initial SRS (range 27.5–139 months). The median AVM target volume was 6.4 cm3 (range 0.2–26.3 cm3) at initial SRS but was reduced to 2.3 cm3 (range 0.1–18.2 cm3) at the time of the second procedure. The median margin dose at both initial SRS and repeat SRS was 18 Gy.

Results

The actuarial rate of total obliteration by angiography or MR imaging after repeat SRS was 35%, 68%, 77%, and 80% at 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The median time to complete angiographic or MR imaging obliteration after repeat SRS was 39 months. Factors associated with a higher rate of AVM obliteration were smaller residual AVM target volume (p = 0.038) and a volume reduction of 50% or more after the initial procedure (p = 0.014). Seven patients (7%) had a hemorrhage in the interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS. Seventeen patients (16%) had hemorrhage after repeat SRS and 6 patients died. The cumulative actuarial rates of new AVM hemorrhage after repeat SRS were 1.9%, 8.1%, 10.1%, 10.1%, and 22.4% at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively, which translate to annual hemorrhage rates of 4.05% and 1.79% of patients developing new post–repeat-SRS hemorrhages per year for Years 0–2 and 2–10 following repeat SRS. Factors associated with a higher risk of hemorrhage after repeat SRS were a greater number of prior hemorrhages (p = 0.008), larger AVM target volume at initial SRS (p = 0.010), larger target volume at repeat SRS (p = 0.002), initial AVM volume reduction less than 50% (p = 0.019), and a higher Pollock-Flickinger score (p = 0.010). Symptomatic adverse radiation effects developed in 5 patients (4.8%) after initial SRS and in 10 patients (9.5%) after repeat SRS. Prior embolization (p = 0.022) and a higher Spetzler-Martin grade (p = 0.004) were significantly associated with higher rates of adverse radiation effects after repeat SRS. Delayed cyst formation occurred in 5 patients (4.8%) at a median of 108 months after repeat SRS (range 47–184 months).

Conclusions

Repeat SRS for incompletely obliterated AVMs increases the eventual obliteration rate. Hemorrhage after obliteration did not occur in this series. The best results for patients with incompletely obliterated AVMs were seen in patients with a smaller residual nidus volume and no prior hemorrhages.

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Hideyuki Kano, L. Dade Lunsford, John C. Flickinger, Huai-che Yang, Thomas J. Flannery, Nasir R. Awan, Ajay Niranjan, Josef Novotny Jr., and Douglas Kondziolka

Object

The aim of this paper was to define the outcomes and risks of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods

Between 1987 and 2006, the authors performed Gamma Knife surgery in 996 patients with brain AVMs, including 217 patients with AVMs classified as Spetzler-Martin Grade I or II. The median maximum diameter and target volumes were 1.9 cm (range 0.5–3.8 cm) and 2.3 cm3 (range 0.1–14.1 cm3), respectively. The median margin dose was 22 Gy (range 15–27 Gy).

Results

Arteriovenous malformation obliteration was confirmed by MR imaging in 148 patients and by angiography in 100 patients with a median follow-up of 64 months (range 6–247 months). The actuarial rates of total obliteration determined by angiography or MR imaging after 1 SRS procedure were 58%, 87%, 90%, and 93% at 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The median time to complete MR imaging–determined obliteration was 30 months. Factors associated with higher AVM obliteration rates were smaller AVM target volume, smaller maximum diameter, and greater marginal dose. Thirteen patients (6%) suffered hemorrhages during the latency period, and 6 patients died. Cumulative rates of AVM hemorrhage 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years after SRS were 3.7%, 4.2%, 4.2%, 5.0%, and 6.1%, respectively. This corresponded to rates of annual bleeding risk of 3.7%, 0.3%, and 0.2% for Years 0–1, 1–5, and 5–10, respectively, after SRS. The presence of a coexisting aneurysm proximal to the AVM correlated with a significantly higher hemorrhage risk. Temporary symptomatic adverse radiation effects developed in 5 patients (2.3%) after SRS, and 2 patients (1%) developed delayed cysts.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a gradually effective and relatively safe option for patients with smaller volume Spetzler-Martin Grade I or II AVMs who decline initial resection. Hemorrhage after obliteration did not occur in this series. Patients remain at risk for a bleeding event during the latency interval until obliteration occurs. Patients with aneurysms and an AVM warrant more aggressive surgical or endovascular treatment to reduce the risk of a hemorrhage in the latency period after SRS.

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Hideyuki Kano, Douglas Kondziolka, John C. Flickinger, Huai-che Yang, Thomas J. Flannery, Nasir R. Awan, Ajay Niranjan, Josef Novotny Jr., and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

The authors conducted a study to define the long-term outcomes and risks of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for pediatric arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods

Between 1987 and 2006, the authors performed Gamma Knife surgery in 996 patients with brain AVMs; 135 patients were younger than 18 years of age. The median maximum diameter and target volumes were 2.0 cm (range 0.6–5.2 cm) and 2.5 cm3 (range 0.1–17.5 cm3), respectively. The median margin dose was 20 Gy (range 15–25 Gy).

Results

The actuarial rates of total obliteration documented by angiography or MR imaging at 71.3 months (range 6–264 months) were 45%, 64%, 67%, and 72% at 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The median time to complete angiographically documented obliteration was 48.9 months. Of 81 patients with 4 or more years of follow-up, 57 patients (70%) had total obliteration documented by angiography. Factors associated with a higher rate of documented AVM obliteration were smaller AVM target volume, smaller maximum diameter, and larger margin dose. In 8 patients (6%) a hemorrhage occurred during the latency interval, and 1 patient died. The rates of AVM hemorrhage after SRS were 0%, 1.6%, 2.4%, 5.5%, and 10.0% at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The overall annual hemorrhage rate was 1.8%. Larger volume AVMs were associated with a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage after SRS. Permanent neurological deficits due to adverse radiation effects developed in 2 patients (1.5%) after SRS, and in 1 patient (0.7%) delayed cyst formation occurred.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a gradually effective and relatively safe management option for pediatric patients in whom surgery is considered to pose excessive risks. Although hemorrhage after AVM obliteration did not occur in the present series, patients remain at risk during the latency interval until obliteration is complete. The best candidates for SRS are pediatric patients with smaller volume AVMs located in critical brain regions.