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Arachnoid cyst alone causes hemifacial spasm: illustrative case

Ko Ozaki, Yoshinori Higuchi, Shigeki Nakano, Kentaro Horiguchi, Iwao Yamakami, and Yasuo Iwadate

studied, 31 and MR technologies have revealed noninvasive CSF flow dynamics, such as cardiac-related pulsation. Flow changes would cause deviation of the arachnoid cyst following the cardiac cycle and stretching of the facial nerve ( Fig. 4A ). Liu and Zhong hypothesized that an ectopic action potential generated from the compressed nerve root was responsible for cranial nerve hyperactivity in the pathogenesis of HFS and trigeminal neuralgia (TN). 32 The compression of the arteries or tumor at the REZ results in demyelination of the nerves and induces activation of

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Cavum trigeminale cephalocele associated with intracranial hypertension in an 18-month-old child: illustrative case

Giovanni Miccoli, Domenico Cicala, Pietro Spennato, Alessia Imperato, Claudio Ruggiero, and Giuseppe Cinalli

usually incidental, associations with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, headache, trigeminal neuralgia, cranial nerve deficits, vertigo, and tinnitus have been reported. 3 The exact etiology of CTCs remains unclear to date. The most widely accepted theory is that their origin is from increasing intracranial pressure (ICP) causing herniation of the meninges and CSF from the posterolateral region of the Meckel’s cave into the petrous apex. 1 , 5–7 CTCs can be acquired or congenital and either monolateral or bilateral. 8 , 9 They are occasionally described together with

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A child with unilateral abducens nerve palsy and neurovascular compression in Chiari malformation type 1 resolved with posterior fossa decompression: illustrative case

Olivia A Kozel, Belinda Shao, Cody A Doberstein, Natalie Amaral-Nieves, Matthew N Anderson, Gita V Harappanahally, Michael A Langue, and Konstantina A Svokos

instances of contact between the abducens nerve and the AICA. 28 Symptomatic neurovascular compression of the abducens nerve is rare. A few reported cases have implicated compression from the AICA or a dolichoectatic VA. 29 , 30 Given the difficult skull base approach to the prepontine cistern 31 and the rarity of the condition, microvascular decompression of the abducens nerve is seldom undertaken, in contrast to more commonly decompressed pathologies such as hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia. 32 – 35 One review noted that only 6 of 22 cases of abducens nerve