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Doniel Drazin, Terrence T. Kim, David W. Polly Jr and J. Patrick Johnson

craniovertebral junction, atlantoaxial complex, trauma, and tumor resection. It has recently been applied in large-scale use to degenerative and congenital deformities in the thoracolumbar spine. 5 , 10 , 14 , 16 , 19 Registration The automatic registration process, a major advancement, has allowed IGS technology to be used without necessitating significant surgeon input for this part of the procedure. Previously, the registration process required obtaining a CT scan and either physically or electronically importing the data into the stereotactic IGS workstation so that

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-institution experience Joseph Ferguson Steven W. Hwang Zachary Tataryn Amer F. Samdani 3 2014 13 3 247 254 10.3171/2013.12.PEDS13188 2013.12.PEDS13188 Clinical significance of imaging and histological characteristics of filum terminale in tethered cord syndrome Eric M. Thompson Michael J. Strong Garth Warren Randy L. Woltjer Nathan R. Selden 3 2014 13 3 255 259 10.3171/2013.12.PEDS13370 2013.12.PEDS13370 Primary atlantoaxial bone tumors in children: management strategies and long-term follow-up Arnold H. Menezes Raheel Ahmed 3 2014 13 3 260 272 10.3171/2013.11.PEDS13245

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Arnold H. Menezes and Raheel Ahmed

predicting the extent of resection and follow-up needed. Atlantoaxial tumors in children comprise a distinct entity because of the complexity of the regional anatomy (brain, cervical cord, cranial nerves, CSF spaces, and vascular structures); craniocervical stability in a transitional zone; and skeletal growth potential. Thus, tumor resectability depends on the location and biological aggressiveness of the lesion. 56 A surgeon considering en bloc tumor resection should take into account the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the potential involvement of

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Faris Shweikeh, Jordan P. Amadio, Monica Arnell, Zachary R. Barnard, Terrence T. Kim, J. Patrick Johnson and Doniel Drazin

basilar invagination . ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 72 : 91 – 95 , 2010 25 Lee JY , O'Malley BW , Newman JG , Weinstein GS , Lega B , Diaz J , : Transoral robotic surgery of craniocervical junction and atlantoaxial spine: a cadaveric study. Laboratory investigation . J Neurosurg Spine 12 : 13 – 18 , 2010 26 Lieberman IH , Togawa D , Kayanja MM , Reinhardt MK , Friedlander A , Knoller N , : Bone-mounted miniature robotic guidance for pedicle screw and translaminar facet screw placement: Part I—Technical development

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Mina G. Safain, Jordan Talan, Adel M. Malek and Steven W. Hwang

most common area for compression is at the C1–2 junction. It is postulated that this occurs because of a fixed atlantoaxial joint on the side to which the head is rotated. The contralateral facet then stretches or sometimes subluxes, which causes a stretching of the VA in the foramen transversarium between C-1 and C-2. 2 , 22 , 27 , 28 , 33 , 36 It is well known that occlusion or stenosis of one VA is usually asymptomatic and rarely leads to clinical symptomology if the other VA or anterior circulation is able to compensate. 36 In our case, however, we postulate

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Kern H. Guppy, Indro Chakrabarti and Amit Banerjee

invagination and widening of the predental interval suggested atlantoaxial instability. MRI of the cervical spine ( Fig. 5 right ) showed a narrow foramen magnum secondary to the posteriorly displaced odontoid. The tip of the odontoid process appeared to be separated, with marked posterior displacement of the remainder of the odontoid process. The anterior margin of the remainder of the distal portion of the odontoid was almost at the level of the posterior margin of the odontoid tip. There was marked attenuation of the upper cervical cord ( Fig. 5 right ) just below the

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Lars de Jong, Michiel Verfaillie, Steven Pans, Philippe Lauweryns, Jan Goffin and Bart Depreitere

A tlantoaxial instability can occur as a result of traumatic disruption of the transverse ligaments with or without fracture and is a potentially life-threatening situation. Nontraumatic causes of atlantoaxial instability, such as rheumatoid arthritis causing progressive destruction of the C1–2 joints, os odontoideum resulting in insufficiency of the odontoid peg, or metabolic diseases with ligamentous insufficiency, can lead to progressive or repetitive narrowing of the anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal with compression of the spinal cord and

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Tsuyoshi Sugiura, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Motoki Iwasaki, Masafumi Kashii, Takashi Kaito, Tsuyoshi Murase, Tetsuya Tomita, Hideki Yoshikawa and Kazuomi Sugamoto

T he upper cervical spine is commonly involved in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 10 , 16 , 18 , 23 , 24 and the cervical involvements are well known to follow a specific deformation pattern typified as atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS). However, these patterns have been assessed only two-dimensionally, mainly with lateral radiography, even though the deformities occur three-dimensionally with a wider range of variation than was previously thought. Although 2D measurements such as radiography, conventional CT, and conventional MRI 4 , 8 , 9 , 22 , 25

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4 2014 20 4 443 451 10.3171/2013.12.SPINE13112 2013.12.SPINE13112 Spinal juvenile (Type III) extradural-intradural arteriovenous malformations Bradley A. Gross Rose Du 4 2014 20 4 452 458 10.3171/2014.1.SPINE13498 2014.1.SPINE13498 Atlantoaxial instability in monozygotic twin sisters: degenerative or congenital disease? Lars de Jong Michiel Verfaillie Steven Pans Philippe Lauweryns Jan Goffin Bart Depreitere 4 2014 20 4 459 463 10.3171/2013.12.SPINE13227 2013.12.SPINE13227 Effects of curcumin on acute spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits

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Paul Klimo Jr., Clinton J. Thompson, Brian T. Ragel and Frederick A. Boop

screws for atlantoaxial fusion: meta-analysis and review of the literature. A systematic review . J Neurosurg Spine 17 : 577 – 593 , 2012 39 Englot DJ , Chang EF , Auguste KI : Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a meta-analysis of efficacy and predictors of response. A review . J Neurosurg 115 : 1248 – 1255 , 2011 40 Englot DJ , Han SJ , Lawton MT , Chang EF : Predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations. Clinical article . J Neurosurg 115 : 1169 – 1174 , 2011 41 Englot DJ