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Open access

White epidermoid cyst transformation after stereotactic radiosurgery: illustrative case

Hideki Matsumoto, Yuki Shinya, Satoru Miyawaki, Masahiro Shin, Satoshi Koizumi, Daisuke Sato, Munetoshi Hinata, Masako Ikemura, Satoshi Kiyofuji, Taich Kin, Mototaro Iwanaga, Masahiro Shimizu, Hirofumi Nakatomi, and Nobuhito Saito

BACKGROUND

White epidermoid cysts (WECs) are a rare type of epidermoid cyst with atypical radiological features. The epidemiological aspects and mechanisms of their onset remain unknown. Herein, the authors report a unique case of WEC transformation from a typical epidermoid cyst after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), confirmed by radiological and pathological findings.

OBSERVATIONS

The case involved a 78-year-old man with a history of 2 surgeries for a left cerebellopontine angle typical epidermoid cyst 23 years earlier and SRS using the CyberKnife for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia (TN) 14 years earlier. The tumor with high intensity on T1-weighted imaging, low intensity on T2-weighted imaging, without restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging had gradually enlarged after SRS. Therefore, a salvage surgery was performed via a left suboccipital craniotomy, and the intraoperative findings showed a cyst with a brown, viscous liquid component, consistent with those of WECs. Histopathologically, keratin calcification and hemorrhage were identified, leading to a diagnosis of WEC. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the TN resolved. No tumor recurrence was recorded at 2 years postoperatively.

LESSONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first world case of WEC transformation from a typical epidermoid cyst after SRS, confirmed by radiological and pathological findings. Radiation effects could have been involved in this transformation.

Full access

Different learning curves between stent retrieval and a direct aspiration first-pass technique for acute ischemic stroke

Hidehisa Nishi, Akira Ishii, Ichiro Nakahara, Shoji Matsumoto, Nobutake Sadamasa, Yasutoshi Kai, Ryota Ishibashi, Michio Yamamoto, Satoshi Morita, and Izumi Nagata

OBJECTIVE

The clinical outcomes of a direct aspiration first-pass technique (ADAPT) and stent retriever (SR) have been reported to be similar in several observational studies. In this study, procedural and clinical outcomes with ADAPT and SR for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with large artery occlusion were compared in different time periods.

METHODS

In each specific time period, SR and ADAPT were used as the first-line treatment approach for acute ischemic stroke patients with large artery occlusion at the authors’ institution. Baseline characteristics, procedural variables, and functional outcome at 90 days were compared between patients treated with SR and those treated with ADAPT. These 2 groups were divided into 3 sequential subgroups to assess the learning curve effects of the endovascular team and individual operators on the procedural variables of each treatment strategy.

RESULTS

Overall, 89 patients were treated. In the SR group, the recanalization rate was higher (84% vs 65%; p = 0.01) and the procedure time was shorter than in the ADAPT group (median 42 minutes vs 76 minutes, p = 0.04). On the subgroup analysis of the learning curve, the SR group showed more rapid improvement in procedure time than the ADAPT group (p = 0.01 for the team; p < 0.01 for individual operators).

CONCLUSIONS

In this initial experience, a higher recanalization rate and shorter procedure time were achieved with SR than with ADAPT. A high recanalization rate with SR was possible with relatively less clinical experience, whereas procedure time dramatically decreased with experience. These observed effects on the learning curve might be useful when choosing the method for initial endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke at relatively small stroke centers.

Free access

Radiological and clinical features of twig-like middle cerebral artery in comparison with moyamoya angiopathy: a multicenter retrospective study

Yudai Goto, Masataka Nanto, Hideki Oka, Nobukuni Murakami, Toru Nakagawa, Satoshi Kimura, Yoshihiro Iwamoto, Yasuo Inoue, Keigo Matsumoto, Junichi Miyamoto, and Naoya Hashimoto

OBJECTIVE

Twig-like middle cerebral artery (T-MCA) is a rare congenital anomaly that is difficult to distinguish from moyamoya angiopathy (MMA), given the similarity of the angioarchitectures. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the radiological and clinical features of T-MCA and to distinguish this condition from MMA.

METHODS

A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 29 patients with T-MCA and 57 patients with MMA. Demographic, radiological, and clinical data were compared between the patients with T-MCA and those with MMA.

RESULTS

The T-MCA group tended to be older than the MMA group (mean age 47 ± 18 vs 39 ± 22 years). Twenty patients with T-MCA (69%) were initially diagnosed with MMA. All T-MCA cases had twig-like networks and steno-occlusive changes involving the MCA. The T-MCA group had a higher incidence of intracranial aneurysms (35% vs 11%) and coexisting arterial anomalies (48% vs 12%). T-MCA and MMA cases had significant differences in involvement of the internal carotid artery terminus (0% vs 100%) and posterior cerebral artery (0% vs 23%), and in transdural anastomosis (0% vs 51%). T-MCA cases were less likely to present with stroke (59% vs 86%) and more likely to be asymptomatic (28% vs 12%). Of the patients with stroke, those with T-MCA had more hemorrhagic strokes (41% vs 29%) and fewer ischemic strokes (59% vs 71%) compared to those with MMA.

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that T-MCA is a different disease entity from MMA based on significant differences in the radiological and clinical features. Neurosurgeons should recognize this anomaly and understand the key features that differentiate T-MCA from MMA.

Free access

Impact of knee osteoarthritis on surgical outcomes of lumbar spinal canal stenosis

Masahiro Ozaki, Nobuyuki Fujita, Azusa Miyamoto, Satoshi Suzuki, Osahiko Tsuji, Narihito Nagoshi, Eijiro Okada, Mitsuru Yagi, Takashi Tsuji, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Hitoshi Kono, and Kota Watanabe

OBJECTIVE

Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA), both of which are age-related degenerative diseases, are independently correlated with increased pain and dysfunction of the lower extremities. However, there have been few studies that investigated whether LSS patients with KOA exhibit poor clinical recovery following lumbar spinal surgery. The aim of this study was to elucidate the surgical outcomes of lumbar spinal surgery for LSS patients with KOA using multiple health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters.

METHODS

A total of 865 consecutive patients who underwent posterior lumbar spinal surgery for LSS were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline characteristics, radiographic parameters, perioperative factors, and multiple HRQOL parameters were analyzed preoperatively and at 1-year follow-up. HRQOL items included the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ). The effectiveness of surgical treatment was assessed using the JOABPEQ. The treatment was regarded as effective when it resulted in an increase in postoperative JOABPEQ score by ≥ 20 points compared with preoperative score or achievement of a postoperative score of ≥ 90 points in those with a preoperative score of < 90 points.

RESULTS

A total of 32 LSS patients with KOA were identified, and 128 age- and sex-matched LSS patients without KOA were selected as controls. In both groups, all HRQOL parameters markedly improved at the 1-year follow-up. On the SF-36, the postoperative mean score for the role physical domain was significantly lower in the KOA group than in the control group (p = 0.034). The treatment was significantly less “effective” in the social life domain of JOABPEQ in the KOA group than in the control group (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The surgical outcomes of LSS patients with KOA are favorable, although poorer than those of LSS patients without KOA, particularly in terms of social life and activities. These results indicate that LSS patients with KOA experience difficulty in routine work or ordinary activities due to knee pain or restricted knee ROM even after lumbar spinal surgery. Hence, preoperative KOA status warrants consideration when planning lumbar spinal surgery and estimating surgical outcomes of LSS.

Free access

Reaching minimal clinically important difference in adult spinal deformity surgery: a comparison of patients from North America and Japan

Hideyuki Arima, Steven D. Glassman, Keith Bridwell, Yu Yamato, Mitsuru Yagi, Kota Watanabe, Morio Matsumoto, Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Taneichi, Yukihiro Matsuyama, and Leah Y. Carreon

OBJECTIVE

The Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire (SRS-22r) has been shown to be reliable, valid, and responsive to change in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) undergoing surgery. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is the smallest difference in a health-related quality of life score that is considered to be worthwhile or clinically important to the individual. The authors hypothesized that the proportion of patients with ASD achieving an MCID in the SRS-22r score would be different between two culturally different cohorts. The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of patients with ASD achieving MCID for the SRS-22r domains in North American (NA) and Japanese cohorts.

METHODS

A total of 137 patients from North America (123 women, mean age 60.0 years) and 60 patients from Japan (56 women, mean age 65.5 years) with at least 2 years of follow-up after corrective spine surgery for ASD were included. Except for self-image, published Japanese MCID values of SRS-22r for ASD were higher (function = 0.90, pain = 0.85, self-image = 1.05, subtotal = 1.05) than the published NA MCID values (function = 0.60, pain = 0.40, self-image = 1.23, subtotal = 0.43).

RESULTS

There was a statistically significant improvement in all SRS-22r domain scores at 2 years compared to baseline in both cohorts. Except for mental health (NA = 0.32, Japanese = 0.72, p = 0.005), the mean improvement from baseline to 2 years was similar between the NA and Japanese cohorts. The proportion of patients achieving MCID was higher in North America for function (NA = 51%, Japanese = 30%, p = 0.006), pain (NA = 80%, Japanese = 47%, p < 0.001), and subtotal (NA = 72%, Japanese = 35%, p < 0.001), while there was no significant difference for self-image (NA = 53%, Japanese = 58%, p = 0.454).

CONCLUSIONS

Despite similar improvements in SRS-22r domain scores from baseline to 2 years postoperatively, the proportion of patients reaching SRS-22r MCID for function, pain, and subtotal after ASD surgery was higher in the NA cohort than in the Japanese cohort. This may imply that patients in North America and Japan may value observed changes in clinical status differently.

Full access

Letter to the Editor. Cervical intramedullary tumor resection and kyphotic malalignment

Sanjeev Ariyandath Sreenivasan, Kanwaljeet Garg, Manmohan Singh, and Poodipedi Sarat Chandra

Free access

Is anterior decompression and fusion more beneficial than laminoplasty for K-line (+) cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament? An analysis using propensity score matching

Takaki Inoue, Satoshi Maki, Toshitaka Yoshii, Takeo Furuya, Satoru Egawa, Kenichiro Sakai, Kazuo Kusano, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Takashi Hirai, Kanichiro Wada, Keiichi Katsumi, Kengo Fujii, Atsushi Kimura, Narihito Nagoshi, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Yasushi Oshima, Kei Ando, Masahiko Takahata, Kanji Mori, Hideaki Nakajima, Kazuma Murata, Shunji Matsunaga, Takashi Kaito, Kei Yamada, Sho Kobayashi, Satoshi Kato, Tetsuro Ohba, Satoshi Inami, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Hiroyuki Katoh, Haruo Kanno, Shiro Imagama, Masao Koda, Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Katsushi Takeshita, Morio Matsumoto, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Atsushi Okawa, and the Japanese Multicenter Research Organization for Ossification of the Spinal Ligament

OBJECTIVE

It is unclear whether anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ADF) or laminoplasty (LMP) results in better outcomes for patients with K-line–positive (+) cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The purpose of the study is to compare surgical outcomes and complications of ADF versus LMP in patients with K-line (+) OPLL.

METHODS

The study included 478 patients enrolled in the Japanese Multicenter Research Organization for Ossification of the Spinal Ligament and who underwent surgical treatment for cervical OPLL. The patients who underwent anterior-posterior combined surgery or posterior decompression with instrumented fusion were excluded. The patients with a follow-up period of fewer than 2 years were also excluded, leaving 198 patients with K-line (+) OPLL. Propensity score matching was performed on 198 patients with K-line (+) OPLL who underwent ADF (44 patients) or LMP (154 patients), resulting in 39 pairs of patients based on the following predictors for surgical outcomes: age, preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, C2–7 angle, and the occupying ratio of OPLL. Clinical outcomes were assessed 1 and 2 years after surgery using the recovery rate of the JOA score. Complications and reoperation rates were also investigated.

RESULTS

The mean recovery rate of the JOA score 1 year after surgery was 55.3% for patients who underwent ADF and 42.3% (p = 0.06) for patients who underwent LMP. Two years after surgery, the recovery rate was 53.4% for those who underwent ADF and 38.7% for LMP (p = 0.07). Although both surgical procedures yielded good results, the mean recovery rate of JOA scores tended to be higher in the ADF group. The incidence of surgical complications, however, was higher following ADF (33%) than LMP (15%; p = 0.06). The reoperation rate was also higher in the ADF group (15%) than in the LMP group (0%; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical outcomes were good for both ADF and LMP, indicating that ADF and LMP are appropriate procedures for patients with K-line (+) OPLL. Clinical outcomes of ADF 1 and 2 years after surgery tended to be better than LMP, but the analysis did not detect any significant difference in clinical outcomes between the groups. Conversely, patients who underwent ADF had a higher incidence of surgery-related complications. When considering indications for ADF or LMP, benefits and risks of the surgical procedures should be carefully weighed.

Free access

Ischemic complications in the neurosurgical and endovascular treatments of craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas: a multicenter study

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Toshitaka Seki, Tomoo Inoue, Izumi Koyanagi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, and and the Neurospinal Society of Japan CCJ AVF Study Investigators

OBJECTIVE

A recent comparative analysis between neurosurgical and endovascular treatments for craniocervical junction (CCJ) arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) revealed better treatment outcomes in the neurosurgery group than in the endovascular group. This finding was attributed to the higher than expected rate of ischemic complications in the endovascular group than in the neurosurgery group (26% vs 7.7%, p = 0.037). The aim of the present study was to describe ischemic complications associated with treatments for CCJ AVFs.

METHODS

This descriptive study was authorized by the Neurospinal Society of Japan. Data from 97 consecutive patients with CCJ AVFs who underwent neurosurgical (n = 78) or endovascular (n = 19) treatment between 2009 and 2019 were collected from 29 centers. The primary endpoints were details on ischemic complications and their risk factors. Secondary endpoints were details on other complications.

RESULTS

Among all major complications, ischemic complications were the most common (11% of 97 patients), followed by hemorrhagic complications (7.2%), hydrocephalus (2.1%), and CSF leakage (2.1%). Ischemic complications included 8 spinal, 2 brainstem, and 1 cerebellar infarctions. Iatrogenic occlusion of the anterior or posterior spinal artery from the radiculomedullary or radiculopial arteries caused these complications. Ischemic complications resulted in neurological deficits, including motor paresis, sensory disturbances, and brainstem dysfunction. The modified Rankin Scale score was 3 or higher in 36% of patients with ischemic complications at the final follow-up of 23 months. Risk factors associated with ischemic complications were endovascular treatment (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16) and spinal feeding arteries (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.03–14). Most of the other complications were addressed by additional treatment without permanent neurological deficits.

CONCLUSIONS

Among ischemic complications associated with treatments for CCJ AVFs, spinal infarctions were the most common and were mostly attributed to endovascular procedures for CCJ AVFs fed by spinal arteries. These results support the use of neurosurgery as the first-line treatment for CCJ AVFs.

Open access

Neurosurgical versus endovascular treatment of craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas: a multicenter cohort study of 97 patients

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Toshitaka Seki, Tomoo Inoue, Izumi Koyanagi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, and the Neurospinal Society of Japan CCJ AVF Study Investigators

OBJECTIVE

Craniocervical junction (CCJ) arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are treated using neurosurgical or endovascular options; however, there is still no consensus on the safest and most effective treatment. The present study compared the treatment results of neurosurgical and endovascular procedures for CCJ AVFs, specifically regarding retreatment, complications, and outcomes.

METHODS

This was a multicenter cohort study authorized by the Neurospinal Society of Japan. Data on consecutive patients with CCJ AVFs who underwent neurosurgical or endovascular treatment between 2009 and 2019 at 29 centers were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the retreatment rate by procedure. Secondary endpoints were the overall complication rate, the ischemic complication rate, the mortality rate, posttreatment changes in the neurological status, independent risk factors for retreatment, and poor outcomes.

RESULTS

Ninety-seven patients underwent neurosurgical (78 patients) or endovascular (19 patients) treatment. Retreatment rates were 2.6% (2/78 patients) in the neurosurgery group and 63% (12/19 patients) in the endovascular group (p < 0.001). Overall complication rates were 22% and 42% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively (p = 0.084). Ischemic complication rates were 7.7% and 26% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively (p = 0.037). Ischemic complications included 8 spinal infarctions, 2 brainstem infarctions, and 1 cerebellar infarction, which resulted in permanent neurological deficits. Mortality rates were 2.6% and 0% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively (p > 0.99). Two patients died of systemic complications. The percentages of patients with improved modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were 60% and 37% in the neurosurgery and endovascular groups, respectively, with a median follow-up of 23 months (p = 0.043). Multivariate analysis identified endovascular treatment as an independent risk factor associated with retreatment (OR 54, 95% CI 9.9–300; p < 0.001). Independent risk factors associated with poor outcomes (a postoperative mRS score of 3 or greater) were a pretreatment mRS score of 3 or greater (OR 13, 95% CI 2.7–62; p = 0.001) and complications (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.3–26; p = 0.020).

CONCLUSIONS

Neurosurgical treatment was more effective and safer than endovascular treatment for patients with CCJ AVFs because of lower retreatment and ischemic complication rates and better outcomes.