Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Maria Koutourousiou x
  • User-accessible content x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Shannon Fraser, Paul A. Gardner, Maria Koutourousiou, Mark Kubik, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H. Snyderman and Eric W. Wang

OBJECTIVE

The aim in this paper was to determine risk factors for the development of a postoperative CSF leak after an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for resection of skull base tumors.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients who underwent EEA for the resection of intradural pathology between January 1997 and June 2012 was performed. Basic demographic data were collected, along with patient body mass index (BMI), tumor pathology, reconstruction technique, lumbar drainage, and outcomes.

RESULTS

Of the 615 patients studied, 103 developed a postoperative CSF leak (16.7%). Sex and perioperative lumbar drainage did not affect CSF leakage rates. Posterior fossa tumors had the highest rate of CSF leakage (32.6%), followed by anterior skull base lesions (21.0%) and sellar/suprasellar lesions (9.9%) (p < 0.0001). There was a higher leakage rate for overweight and obese patients (BMI > 25 kg/m2) than for those with a healthy-weight BMI (18.7% vs 11.5%; p = 0.04). Patients in whom a pedicled vascularized flap was used for reconstruction had a lower leakage rate than those in whom a free graft was used (13.5% vs 27.8%; p = 0.0015). In patients with a BMI > 25 kg/m2, the use of a pedicled flap reduced the rate of CSF leakage from 29.5% to 15.0% (p = 0.001); in patients of normal weight, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (21.9% [pedicled flap] vs 9.2% [free graft]; p = 0.09).

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative BMI > 25 kg/m2 and tumor location in the posterior fossa were associated with higher rates of postoperative CSF leak. Use of a pedicled vascularized flap may be associated with reduced risk of a CSF leak, particularly in overweight patients.

Free access

Maria Koutourousiou, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W. Wang, Carl H. Snyderman, M.B.A. and Paul A. Gardner

Object

Recently, endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has been introduced in the management of skull base tumors, with constantly improving outcomes and increasing indications. The authors retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of EES in the management of olfactory groove meningiomas.

Methods

Between February 2003 and December 2012, 50 patients (64% female) with olfactory groove meningiomas underwent EES at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors present the results of EES and analyze the resection rates, clinical outcome, complications, and limitations of this approach.

Results

Forty-four patients presented with primary tumors, whereas six were previously treated elsewhere. The patients’ mean age was 57.1 years (range 27–88 years). Clinical presentation included altered mental status (36%), visual loss (30%), headache (24%), and seizures (20%). The mean maximum tumor diameter was 41.6 mm (range 18–80 mm). All patients underwent EES, which was performed in stages in 18 giant tumors. Complete tumor resection (Simpson Grade I) was achieved in 66.7% of the 45 patients in whom it was the goal, and 13 (28.9%) had near-total resection (> 95% of the tumor). Tumor size, calcification, and absence of cortical cuff from vasculature were significant factors that influenced the degree of resection (p = 0.002, p = 0.024, and p = 0.028, respectively). Tumor residual was usually at the most lateral and anterior tumor margins.

Following EES, mental status was improved or normalized in 77.8% of the cases, vision was improved or restored in 86.7 %, and headaches resolved in 83.3 %. There was no postoperative deterioration of presenting symptoms. Complications were increased in tumors > 40 mm and included CSF leakage (30%), which was significantly associated with lobular tumor configuration (p = 0.048); pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis, more commonly in elderly patients (20%); sinus infections (10%); and delayed abscess months or years after EES (6%). One patient had an intraoperative vascular injury resulting in transient hemiparesis (2%). There were no perioperative deaths. During a mean follow-up period of 32 months (median 22 months, range 1–115 months), 1 patient underwent repeat EES for tumor regrowth.

Conclusions

Endoscopic endonasal surgery has shown good clinical outcomes regardless of patient age, previous treatment, or tumor characteristics. Tumor size > 40 mm, calcification, and absence of cortical vascular cuff limit GTR with EES; in addition, large tumors are associated with increased postoperative complications. Significant lateral and anterior dural involvement may represent indications for using traditional craniotomies for the management of these tumors. Postoperative CSF leakage remains a problem that necessitates innovations in EES reconstruction techniques.

Free access

Maria Koutourousiou, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, S. Tonya Stefko, Eric W. Wang, Carl H. Snyderman and Paul A. Gardner

Object

Following the introduction of the neurosurgical microscope, the outcomes in suprasellar meningioma surgery were dramatically improved. More recently, the neurosurgical endoscope has been introduced as a visualization option during removal of skull base tumors, both transcranially and endonasally. The authors retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) in the management of suprasellar meningiomas.

Methods

Between 2002 and 2011, 75 patients (81.3% female) with suprasellar meningiomas underwent EES at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors present the results of EES and analyze the resection rates, visual outcome, and complications.

Results

Seventy-one patients presented with primary tumors, whereas 4 were previously treated elsewhere. Their mean age was 57.3 years (range 36–88 years), and most patients presented with visual loss (81.3%). Tumors occupied the tuberculum sellae (86.7%) and planum sphenoidale (50.7%), with extension into the optic canals in 26.7% (unilateral in 21.3% and bilateral in 5.3%) and the pituitary fossa (9.3%). Gross-total tumor resection (Simpson Grade I) was achieved in 76% of the cases in the whole cohort and in 81.4% of the patients in whom it was the goal of surgery. Tumor location and extension into the optic canals was not a limitation for total resection. Tumor size, configuration, and vascular encasement were significant factors that influenced the degree of resection (p < 0.0001). Vision was improved or normalized in 85.7% of the cases. Visual deterioration following EES occurred in 2 patients (3.6%). Complications included postoperative CSF leaks (25.3% overall, 16.1% in recent years) resulting in meningitis in 4 cases. One patient had an intraoperative injury of the artery of Heubner resulting in associated neurological deficit. Another elderly patient died within 1 month after EES due to cerebral vasospasm and multisystem impairment. No patient developed postoperative cerebral contusions, hemorrhage, or seizures. During a mean follow-up period of 29 months (range 1–98 months), 4 patients have shown recurrence, but only 1 required repeat EES.

Conclusions

With the goal of gross-total tumor resection and visual improvement, EES can achieve very good results, (comparable to microscopic approaches) for the treatment of suprasellar meningiomas. Avoidance of brain and optic nerve retraction, preservation of the vascularization of the optic apparatus, and wide decompression of the optic canals are the main advantages of EES for the treatment of suprasellar meningiomas, while CSF leaks remain a disadvantage.

Full access

Francisco Vaz-Guimaraes, Maria Koutourousiou, John R. de Almeida, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W. Wang, Carl H. Snyderman and Paul A. Gardner

OBJECTIVE

Epidermoid and dermoid cysts may be found along the cranial base and are commonly resected via open transcranial approaches. The use of endoscopic endonasal approaches for resection of these tumors has been rarely reported.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for epidermoid and dermoid cyst resection at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2005 and June 2014. Surgical outcomes and variables that might affect the extent of resection and complications were analyzed.

RESULTS

Total resection (total removal of cyst contents and capsule) was achieved in 8 patients (38.1%), near-total resection (total removal of cyst contents, incomplete removal of cyst capsule) in 9 patients (42.9%), and subtotal resection (incomplete removal of cyst contents and capsule) in 4 patients (19%). Larger cyst volume (≥ 3 cm3) and intradural location (15 cysts) were significantly associated with nontotal resection (p = 0.008 and 0.0005, respectively). In the whole series, surgical complications were seen in 6 patients (28.6%). No complications were observed in patients with extradural cysts. Among the 15 patients with intradural cysts, the most common surgical complication was postoperative CSF leak (5 patients, 33.3%), followed by postoperative intracranial infection (4 patients, 26.7%). Larger cysts and postoperative CSF leak were associated with intracranial infection (p = 0.012 and 0.028, respectively). Subtotal resection was marginally associated with intracranial infection when compared with total resection (p = 0.091). All patients with neurological symptoms improved postoperatively with the exception of 1 patient with unchanged abducens nerve palsy.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic endonasal approaches may be effectively used for resection of epidermoid and dermoid cysts in carefully selected cases. These approaches are recommended for cases in which a total or near-total resection is possible in addition to a multilayer cranial base reconstruction with vascularized tissue to minimize the risk of intracranial infection.