Martijn J. Cornelissen, Robbin de Goederen, Priya Doerga, Iris Cuperus, Marie-Lise van Veelen, Maarten Lequin, Paul Govaert, Irene M. J. Mathijssen, Jeroen Dudink and Robert C. Tasker
In addition to craniocerebral disproportion, other factors, such as Chiari malformation type I, obstructive sleep apnea, and venous outflow obstruction, are considered to have a role in the occurrence of intracranial hypertension in craniosynostosis. This pilot study examined cerebral venous flow velocity to better characterize the complex intracranial venous physiology of craniosynostosis.
The authors performed a prospective cohort study of craniosynostosis patients (n = 34) referred to a single national (tertiary) craniofacial unit. Controls (n = 28) consisted of children who were referred to the unit’s outpatient clinic and did not have craniosynostosis. Transfontanelle ultrasound scans with venous Doppler flow velocity assessment were performed at the first outpatient clinic visit and after each surgery, if applicable. Mean venous blood flow velocities of the internal cerebral vein (ICVv) and the superior sagittal sinus (SSSv) were recorded and blood flow waveform was scored.
Preoperatively, SSSv was decreased in craniosynostosis patients compared with controls (7.57 vs 11.31 cm/sec, p = 0.009). ICVv did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Postoperatively, SSSv increased significantly (7.99 vs 10.66 cm/sec, p = 0.023). Blood flow waveform analyses did not differ significantly between patients and controls.
Premature closure of cranial sutures was associated with decreased SSSv but not ICVv; indicating an effect on the superficial rather than deep venous drainage. Further Doppler ultrasound studies are needed to test the hypothesis that at an early stage of craniosynostosis pathology SSSv, but not pulsatility, is abnormal, and that abnormality in both SSSv and the superficial venous waveform reflect a more advanced stage of evolution in suture closure.
Priya N. Doerga, Maarten H. Lequin, Marjolein H. G. Dremmen, Bianca K. den Ottelander, Katya A. L. Mauff, Matthias W. Wagner, Juan A. Hernandez-Tamames, Sarah L. Versnel, Koen F. M. Joosten, Marie-Lise C. van Veelen, Robert C. Tasker and Irene M. J. Mathijssen
In comparison with the general population, children with syndromic craniosynostosis (sCS) have abnormal cerebral venous anatomy and are more likely to develop intracranial hypertension. To date, little is known about the postnatal development change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in sCS. The aim of this study was to determine CBF in patients with sCS, and compare findings with control subjects.
A prospective cohort study of patients with sCS using MRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL) determined regional CBF patterns in comparison with a convenience sample of control subjects with identical MRI/ASL assessments in whom the imaging showed no cerebral/neurological pathology. Patients with SCS and control subjects were stratified into four age categories and compared using CBF measurements from four brain lobes, the cerebellum, supratentorial cortex, and white matter. In a subgroup of patients with sCS the authors also compared longitudinal pre- to postoperative CBF changes.
Seventy-six patients with sCS (35 female [46.1%] and 41 male [53.9%]), with a mean age of 4.5 years (range 0.2–19.2 years), were compared with 86 control subjects (38 female [44.2%] and 48 male [55.8%]), with a mean age of 6.4 years (range 0.1–17.8 years). Untreated sCS patients < 1 year old had lower CBF than control subjects. In older age categories, CBF normalized to values observed in controls. Graphical analyses of CBF by age showed that the normally expected peak in CBF during childhood, noted at 4 years of age in control subjects, occurred at 5–6 years of age in patients with sCS. Patients with longitudinal pre- to postoperative CBF measurements showed significant increases in CBF after surgery.
Untreated patients with sCS < 1 year old have lower CBF than control subjects. Following vault expansion, and with age, CBF in these patients normalizes to that of control subjects, but the usual physiological peak in CBF in childhood occurs later than expected.