John Persing, John A. Jane Jr. and John A. Jane Sr.
Robert M. Starke, John A. Jane Jr., Ashok R. Asthagiri and John A. Jane Sr.
Tord D. Alden, George J. Kaptain, John A. Jane Jr. and John A. Jane Sr.
The use of chymopapain in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation has been widely studied since Smith first described its use in humans in 1963. The authors describe the use of chymopapain intraoperatively in open lumbar microdiscectomy in 63 patients. When combined with the results of a previous study performed at the same institution, the authors found that this technique significantly reduces the rate of recurrent disc herniation when compared with traditional laminotomy with discectomy. This procedure maximizes the benefits of each approach taken separately, allowing for decompression of the nerve root from a free fragment or sequestered disc and preventing recurrence through dissolution of the nucleus pulposus. Overall, outcome was good or excellent immediately postoperatively in 73% of the 63 patients and in 64% at last follow-up evaluation. Additionally, this procedure is safe with no complications noted in the immediate perioperative period or at follow-up evaluation.
John A. Jane Jr., Kant Y. Lin and John A. Jane Sr.
Sagittal synostosis causes predictable malformations depending on the specific suture location that fuses. Anterior fusion causes frontal bossing, whereas posterior fusion causes an occipital knob. Complete sagittal synostosis results in deformity both anteriorly and posteriorly. Variants of each type exist and therefore surgical correction must be tailored to the individual patient. Examples of the different forms of sagittal synotsosis are discussed, and the various surgical techniques available are detailed.
Aaron E. Bond, John A. Jane Sr., Kenneth C. Liu and Edward H. Oldfield
The authors completed a prospective, institutional review board–approved study using intraoperative MRI (iMRI) in patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for Chiari I malformation. The purpose of the study was to examine the utility of iMRI in determining when an adequate decompression had been performed.
Patients with symptomatic Chiari I malformations with imaging findings of obstruction of the CSF space at the foramen magnum, with or without syringomyelia, were considered candidates for surgery. All patients underwent complete T1, T2, and cine MRI studies in the supine position preoperatively as a baseline. After the patient was placed prone with the neck flexed in position for surgery, iMRI was performed. The patient then underwent a bone decompression of the foramen magnum and arch of C-1, and the MRI was repeated. If obstruction was still present, then in a stepwise fashion the patient underwent dural splitting, duraplasty, and coagulation of the tonsils, with an iMRI study performed after each step guiding the decision to proceed further.
Eighteen patients underwent PFD for Chiari I malformations between November 2011 and February 2013; 15 prone preincision iMRIs were performed. Fourteen of these patients (93%) demonstrated significant improvement of CSF flow through the foramen magnum dorsal to the tonsils with positioning only. This improvement was so notable that changes in CSF flow as a result of the bone decompression were difficult to discern.
The authors observed significant CSF flow changes when simply positioning the patient for surgery. These results put into question intraoperative flow assessments that suggest adequate decompression by PFD, whether by iMRI or intraoperative ultrasound. The use of intraoperative imaging during PFD for Chiari I malformation, whether by ultrasound or iMRI, is limited by CSF flow dynamics across the foramen magnum that change significantly when the patient is positioned for surgery.
Francis R. Johns, John A. Jane Sr. and Kant Y. Lin
The incidence of occipital skull flattening in infants has recently increased, partly as a result of widespread supine positioning to prevent sudden infant death syndrome. The authors discuss the causes and differential diagnosis of posterior skull deformity in this subpopulation of patients and describe their technique for surgical correction of the condition.
John A. Jane Jr., Charles G. diPierro, Gregory A. Helm, Christopher I. Shaffrey and John A. Jane Sr.
Stenosis of the central and lateral lumbar vertebral canal can be congenital or acquired; the latter is most often caused by a degenerative process. The associated neurogenic claudication and/or radiculopathic symptom complexes are thought to result from compression of the cauda equina and lumbosacral nerve roots by hypertrophy of or encroachment by any combination of the following: canal walls, ligamenta flava, intervertebral discs, posterior longitudinal ligament, or epidural fat.
The authors' technique for the treatment of lumbar stenosis involves extensive unilateral decompression with undercutting of the spinous process and obviates the need for instrumentation by using a contralateral autologous bone fusion. The results in a series of 29 patients in whom the procedure was performed suggest that this decompression method safely and successfully treats not only the radicular symptoms caused by lateral stenosis but also the neurogenic claudication symptoms associated with central stenosis. In addition, the procedure can preserve spinal stability without instrumentation by using contralateral autologous bone fusion along the laminae and spinous processes.