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Hiroshi Moridaira, Satoshi Inami, Daisaku Takeuchi, Haruki Ueda, Hiromichi Aoki, Takuya Imura, and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

Issues with spinopelvic fixation for adult spinal deformity (ASD) include loss of the physiological mobility of the entire lumbar spine, perioperative complications, and medical costs. Little is known about the factors associated with successful short fusion for ASD. The authors evaluated radiographic and clinical outcomes after shorter fusion for different subtypes of ASD at 2 years postoperatively and examined factors associated with successful short fusion.

METHODS

This was a single-center study of 37 patients who underwent short fusion and a minimum 2 years of follow-up for ASD in which lumbar kyphosis was the main deformity. The exclusion criteria were 1) age < 40 years, 2) previous lumbar vertebral fracture, 3) severe osteoporosis, 4) T10–L2 kyphosis > 20°, 5) scoliotic deformity with an upper end vertebra (UEV) above T12, and 6) concomitant Parkinson’s disease or neurological disease. The surgical procedures, radiographic course, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were assessed, and correlations between radiographic parameters and postoperative ODI at 2 years were analyzed.

RESULTS

A mean of 3.5 levels were fused. The mean radiographic parameters preoperatively, at 2 weeks, and at 2 years, respectively, were as follows: coronal Cobb angle: 22.9°, 11.5°, and 12.6°; lumbar lordosis (LL): 12.9°, 35.8°, and 32.2°; pelvic incidence (PI) minus LL: 35.5°, 14.7°, and 19.2°; pelvic tilt: 29.4°, 23.1°, and 25.0°; and sagittal vertical axis 85.3, 36.7, and 59.2 mm. Abnormal proximal junctional kyphosis occurred in 8 cases. Revision surgery was performed to extend the length of fusion from a lower thoracic vertebra to the pelvis in 2 cases. The mean ODI scores preoperatively and at 2 years were 50.7% and 24.1%, respectively. Patient age, number of fused intervertebral segments, and radiographic parameters were analyzed by the stepwise method to identify factors contributing to the ODI score at 2 years, preoperative PI, and sagittal vertical axis at 2 years. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the minimal clinically important difference of ODI (15%) and preoperative PI, the cutoff value of the preoperative PI was 47° (area under the curve 0.75).

CONCLUSIONS

In terms of subtypes of ASD in which lumbar kyphosis is the main deformity, if the PI is < 47°, then the use of short fusion preserving mobile intervertebral segments can produce adequate LL for the PI, improving both postoperative global spinal alignment and quality of life.

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Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Moridaira, Daisaku Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Sorimachi, Haruki Ueda, Hiromichi Aoki, Takuya Iimura, Yutaka Nohara, and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have demonstrated that Lenke lumbar modifier A contains 2 distinct types (AR and AL), and the AR curve pattern is likely to develop adding-on (i.e., a progressive increase in the number of vertebrae included within the primary curve distally after posterior surgery). However, the results of anterior surgery are unknown. The purpose of this study was to present the surgical results in a cohort of patients undergoing scoliosis treatment for type 1AR curves and to compare anterior and posterior surgeries to consider the ideal indications and advantages of anterior surgery for type 1AR curves.

METHODS

Patients with a Lenke type 1 or 2 and lumbar modifier AR (L4 vertebral tilt to the right) and a minimum 2-year postoperative follow-up were included. The incidence of adding-on and radiographic data were compared between the anterior and posterior surgery groups. The numbers of levels between the end, stable, neutral, and last touching vertebra to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) were also evaluated.

RESULTS

Forty-four patients with a mean follow-up of 57 months were included. There were 14 patients in the anterior group and 30 patients in the posterior group. The main thoracic Cobb angle was not significantly different between the groups preoperatively and at final follow-up. At final follow-up, the anterior group had significantly less tilting of the LIV than the posterior group (−0.8° ± 4.5° vs 3° ± 4°). Distal adding-on was observed in no patient in the anterior group and in 6 patients in the posterior group at final follow-up (p = 0.025). In the anterior group, no LIV was set below the end vertebra, and all LIVs were set above last touching vertebra. The LIV was significantly more proximal in the anterior group than in the posterior surgery patients without adding-on for all reference vertebrae (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to investigate the surgical results of anterior surgery for Lenke type 1AR curve patterns, and it showed that anterior surgery for the curves could minimize the distal extent of the instrumented fusion without adding-on. This would leave more mobile disc space below the fusion.

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Takafumi Chiba, Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Moridaira, Daisaku Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Sorimachi, Haruki Ueda, Makoto Ohe, Hiromichi Aoki, Takuya Iimura, Yutaka Nohara, and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to show the surgical results of growing rod (GR) surgery with prior foundation surgery (PFS) and sublaminar taping at an apex vertebra.

METHODS

Twenty-two early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients underwent dual GR surgery with PFS and sublaminar taping. PFS was performed prior to rod placement, including exposure of distal and proximal anchor areas and anchor instrumentation filled with a local bone graft. After a period of 3–5 months for the anchors to become solid, dual rods were placed for distraction. The apex vertebra was exposed and fastened to the concave side of the rods using sublaminar tape. Preoperative, post–GR placement, and final follow-up radiographic parameters were measured. Complications during the treatment period were evaluated using the patients’ clinical records.

RESULTS

The median age at the initial surgery was 55.5 months (range 28–99 months), and the median follow-up duration was 69.5 months (range 25–98 months). The median scoliotic curves were 81.5° (range 39°–126°) preoperatively, 30.5° (range 11°–71°) after GR placement, and 33.5° (range 12°–87°) at the final follow-up. The median thoracic kyphotic curves were 45.5° (range 7°–136°) preoperatively, 32.5° (range 15°–99°) after GR placement, and 42° (range 11°–93°) at the final follow-up. The median T1–S1 lengths were 240.5 mm (range 188–305 mm) preoperatively, 286.5 mm (range 232–340 mm) after GR placement, and 337.5 mm (range 206–423 mm) at the final follow-up. Complications occurred in 6 patients (27%). Three patients had implant-related complications, 2 patients had alignment-related complications, and 1 patient had a wound-related complication.

CONCLUSIONS

A dual GR technique with PFS and sublaminar taping showed effective correction of scoliotic curves and a lower complication rate than previous reports when a conventional dual GR technique was used.