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Waleed Brinjikji, Harry J. Cloft, Giuseppe Lanzino, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla and Pearse P. Morris

Arteriovenous fistulae of the internal maxillary artery are exceedingly rare, with less than 30 cases reported in the literature. Most of these lesions are congenital, iatrogenic, or posttraumatic. The most common presentation of internal maxillary artery fistulae is pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Because these lesions are single-hole fistulae, they can be easily cured with endovascular techniques. The authors present a case of a patient who presented to their institution with a several-year history of pulsatile tinnitus who was found to have an internal maxillary artery arteriovenous fistula, which was treated endovascularly with transarterial coil and Onyx embolization.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/fDZVMMwpwRc.

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Ross C. Puffer, David J. Daniels, David F. Kallmes, Harry J. Cloft and Giuseppe Lanzino

Object

The authors conducted a study to review their experience with tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) treated with transarterial endovascular embolization in which Onyx was used.

Methods

The authors reviewed prospectively collected data in 9 patients with tentorial DAVFs treated with Onyx embolization between 2008 and 2011. Information reviewed included clinical presentation, angiographic features, treatment, and clinical and radiologically documented outcome. Clinical follow-up was available in every patient. Radiological follow-up studies were available in 8 of 9 patients (mean follow-up 4.6 months).

Results

Six of 9 patients had complete angiographic obliteration (in 5 this was confirmed by a follow-up angiogram obtained 3–6 months later), and 2 patients had near-complete obliteration (faint filling of the venous drainage in the late venous phase). One patient had partial obliteration and required surgical disconnection. In all patients with complete obliteration, transarterial embolization was performed through the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery. There were no procedural complications, and no morbidity or mortality resulted from Onyx embolization.

Conclusions

Transarterial Onyx embolization is a valid, effective, and safe alternative to surgical disconnection in many patients with tentorial DAVFs. The presence of an adequate posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery is critical to achieve a microcatheter position distal enough to increase the likelihood of complete obliteration.

Open access

Satoshi Kiyofuji, Harry J. Cloft, Colin L. W. Driscoll and Michael J. Link

A 60-year-old man with a history of four prior operations for a left cerebellar/middle cerebellar peduncle hemangioblastoma presented with hearing loss, imbalance, and ataxia (de la Monte and Horowitz, 1989). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a 3-cm cystic mass with heterogeneous enhancement in the same location. We resected the mass via reopening of the retrosigmoid approach (Lee et al., 2014). Left cranial nerves IV, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI were all well identified and preserved, and feeding arteries from the brainstem were meticulously coagulated and transected without violating the tumor-brainstem interface (Chen et al., 2013). Preoperative embolization greatly aided safe resection of the mass, whose pathology revealed recurrence of hemangioblastoma (Eskridge et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2006; Sakamoto et al., 2012).

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/3mZgY15xOZc.

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Waleed Brinjikji, Harry J. Cloft, Kelly D. Flemming, Simone Comelli and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECTIVE

Over the last half century, there have been isolated case reports of purely arterial malformations. In this study, the authors report a consecutive series of patients with pure arterial malformations, emphasizing the clinical and radiological features of these lesions.

METHODS

Pure arterial malformations were defined as dilated, overlapping, and tortuous arteries with a coil-like appearance and/or a mass of arterial loops without any associated venous component. Demographic characteristics of the patients, cardiovascular risk factors, presentation, radiological characteristics, and follow-up data were collected. Primary outcomes were new neurological symptoms including disability, stroke, and hemorrhage.

RESULTS

Twelve patients meeting the criteria were identified. Ten patients were female (83.3%) and 2 were male (16.6%). Their mean age at diagnosis was 26.2 ± 11.6 years. The most common imaging indication was headache (7 patients [58.3%]). In 3 cases the pure arterial malformation involved the anterior cerebral arteries (25.0%); in 4 cases the posterior communicating artery/posterior cerebral artery (33.3%); in 2 cases the middle cerebral artery (16.6%); and in 1 case each, the superior cerebellar artery, basilar artery/anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The mean maximum diameter of the malformations was 7.2 ± 5.0 mm (range 3–16 mm). Four lesions had focal aneurysms associated with the pure arterial malformation, and 5 were partially calcified. In no cases was there associated intracranial hemorrhage or infarction. One patient underwent treatment for the pure arterial malformation. All 12 patients had follow-up (mean 29 months, median 19 months), and there were no cases of disability, stroke, or hemorrhage.

CONCLUSIONS

Pure arterial malformations are rare lesions that are often detected incidentally and probably have a benign natural history. These lesions can affect any of the intracranial arteries and are likely best managed conservatively.

Free access

Lorenzo Rinaldo, Harry J. Cloft, Giuseppe Lanzino and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla

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Waleed Brinjikji, David F. Kallmes, Harry J. Cloft and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECT

The association between age and outcomes following aneurysm treatment with flow diverters such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) have not been well established. Using the International Retrospective Study of the Pipeline Embolization Device (IntrePED) registry, the authors assessed the age-related clinical outcomes of patients undergoing aneurysm embolization with the PED.

METHODS

Patients with unruptured aneurysms in the IntrePED registry were divided into 4 age groups: ≤ 50, 51–60, 61–70, and > 70 years old. The rates of the following postoperative complications were compared between age groups using chi-square tests: spontaneous rupture, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), ischemic stroke, parent artery stenosis, cranial neuropathy, neurological morbidity, neurological mortality, combined neurological morbidity and mortality, and all-cause mortality. The association between age and these complications was tested in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, number of PEDs, and aneurysm size, location, and type.

RESULTS

Seven hundred eleven patients with 820 unruptured aneurysms were included in this study. Univariate analysis demonstrated no significant difference in ICH rates across age groups (lowest 1.0% for patients ≤ 50 years old and highest 5.0% for patients > 70 years old, p = 0.097). There was no difference in ischemic stroke rates (lowest 3.6% for patients ≤ 50 years old and highest 6.0% for patients 50–60 years old, p = 0.73). Age > 70 years old was associated with higher rates of neurological mortality; patients > 70 years old had neurological mortality rates of 7.4% compared with 3.3% for patients 61–70 years old, 2.7% for patients 51–60 years old, and 0.5% for patients ≤ 50 years old (p = 0.006). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, increasing age was associated with higher odds of combined neurological morbidity and mortality (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.05; p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

Increasing age is associated with higher neurological morbidity and mortality after Pipeline embolization of intracranial aneurysms. However, the overall complication rates of PED treatment in this group of highly selected elderly patients (> 70 years) were acceptably low, suggesting that age alone should not be considered an exclusion criterion when considering treatment of intracranial aneurysms with the PED.

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Waleed Brinjikji, Ravi K. Lingineni, Chris N. Gu, Giuseppe Lanzino, Harry J. Cloft, Lauren Ulsh, Kristen Koeller and David F. Kallmes

OBJECT

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the formation of intracranial aneurysms and for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages. Smoking has also been suggested to contribute to the recurrence of aneurysms after endovascular coiling. To improve the understanding of the impact of smoking on long-term outcomes after coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms, the authors studied a consecutive contemporary series of patients treated at their institution. The aims of this study were to determine whether smoking is an independent risk factor for aneurysm recurrence and retreatment after endovascular coiling.

METHODS

All patients who had received an intrasaccular coil embolization of an intracranial aneurysm, who had undergone a follow-up imaging exam at least 6 months later, and whose smoking history had been recorded from January 2005 through December 2012 were included in this study. Patients were stratified according to smoking status into 3 groups: 1) never a smoker, 2) current smoker (smoked at the time of treatment), and 3) former smoker (quit smoking before treatment). The 2 primary outcomes studied were aneurysm recurrence and aneurysm retreatment after treatment for endovascular aneurysms. Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used to test statistical significance of differences in the rates of aneurysm recurrence, retreatment, or of both among the 3 groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for smoking status and for several characteristics of the aneurysm was also performed.

RESULTS

In total, 384 patients with a combined total of 411 aneurysms were included in this study. The aneurysm recurrence rate was not significantly associated with smoking: both former smokers (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.61–1.65; p = 0.99) and current smokers (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–1.09; p = 0.09) had odds of recurrence that were similar to those who were never smokers. Former smokers (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.46–1.35; p = 0.38) had odds of retreatment similar to those of never smokers, and current smokers had a lower odds of undergoing retreatment (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.91; p = 0.03) than never smokers. Moreover, an analysis adjusting for aneurysm rupture, diameter, and initial occlusion showed that former smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.33–1.28; p = 0.21) and current smokers (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.60–1.81; p = 0.88) had odds of aneurysm recurrence similar to those who were never smokers. Adjusting the analysis for aneurysm rupture, diameter, and occlusion showed that both former smokers (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.23–1.05; p = 0.07) and current smokers (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.46–1.46; p = 0.50) had odds of retreatment similar to those of patients who were never smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

The results show that smoking was not an independent risk factor for aneurysm recurrence and aneurysm retreatment among patients receiving endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms at the authors' institution. Nonetheless, patients with intracranial aneurysms should continue to be counseled about the risks of tobacco smoking.

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Ioannis Loumiotis, Robert D. Brown Jr., Roanna Vine, Harry J. Cloft, David F. Kallmes and Giuseppe Lanzino

Object

The management of incidental small unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is controversial and many factors need to be considered in the decision-making process. The authors describe a large consecutive series of patients harboring small incidental intracranial aneurysms. Treatment strategy, natural history, complications, and short-term outcomes are presented.

Methods

Between January 2008 and May 2011, the authors prospectively evaluated 212 patients with 272 small (< 10-mm) incidental aneurysms. Treatment recommendations (observation, endovascular treatment, or surgery), complications of treatment, and short-term outcomes were assessed.

Results

Recommended treatment consisted of observation in 125 patients, endovascular embolization in 64, and surgery in 18. Six patients were excluded from further analysis because they underwent treatment elsewhere. In the observation group, at a mean follow-up of 16.7 months, only 1 patient was moved to the embolization group. Seven (6%) of the 125 patients in the observation group died of causes unrelated to aneurysm. Sixty-five patients underwent 69 embolization procedures. The periprocedural permanent morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing endovascular treatment were 1.5% and 1.5%, respectively (overall morbidity and mortality rate 3.0%). In the surgery group no periprocedural complications were observed, although 1 patient did not return to her previous occupation. No aneurysmal rupture was documented in any of the 3 treatment groups during the follow-up period.

Conclusions

A cautious and individualized approach to incidental UIAs is of utmost importance for formulation of a safe and effective treatment algorithm. Invasive treatment (either endovascular or surgery) can be considered in selected younger patients, certain “higher-risk” locations, expanding aneurysms, patients with a family history of aneurysmal hemorrhage, and in those who cannot live their lives knowing that they harbor the UIA. Although the complication rate of invasive treatment is very low, it is not negligible. The study confirms that small incidental UIAs deemed to be not in need of treatment have a very benign short-term natural history, which makes observation a reasonable approach in selected patients.

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Michelle J. Clarke, Todd A. Patrick, J. Bradley White, Harry J. Cloft, William E. Krauss, E. P. Lindell and David G. Piepgras

Object

Although nontraumatic spinal arteriovenous malformations and fistulas (AVMs and AVFs) restricted to the epidural space are rare, they can lead to significant neurological morbidity. Careful diagnostic imaging is essential to their detection and the delineation of the pathological anatomy. Aggressive endovascular and open operative treatment can provide arrest and reversal of neurological deficits.

Methods

The authors report on 6 cases of extradural AVMs/AVFs causing progressive myelopathy. Clinical findings, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and outcome are discussed. Special consideration is given to the anatomy of the lesions and the operative techniques used to treat them. A review of the literature concerning extradural vascular malformations is also presented.

Results

All 6 cases of extradural AVMs had an extradural fistulous location with intradural medullary venous drainage. These cases illustrate progressive myelopathy through cord venous congestion (hypertension) that can be caused by an extradural nidus or fistula. In 4 cases, a large epidural lake was identified on angiography. At surgery, the epidural lake was obliterated and medullary drainage interrupted. All patients had stabilization of their neurological deficits and successful obliteration of the AVM/AVF was obtained.

Conclusions

Extradural AVMs and AVFs are a poorly described entity with published clinical experience limited to sporadic case reports and small series. Although these lesions have a purely extradural location of arteriovenous shunting and early venous drainage, they can be responsible for acute and progressive neurological symptoms similar to those caused by their dural-based intradural counterparts. With careful imaging recognition of the pathological anatomy, surgical and endovascular techniques can be used for the treatment of extradural AVMs affording effective and durable obliteration with stabilization or reversal of neurological symptoms. Venous drainage directly correlates the pathologic mechanisms of presentation. Specific attention must be paid intraoperatively to the epidural lake common to both variants so that recurrence is avoided.