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Samuel Romero-Vargas, José Luis Ruiz-Sandoval, Arturo Sotomayor-González, Rogelio Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Miguel Angel Celis-López, Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Ulises García-González, Raul López-Serna, Victor García-Navarro, Diego Mendez-Rosito, Victor Correa-Correa and Sergio Gómez-Llata

Induced deformation of the cranial vault is one form of permanent alteration of the body that has been performed by human beings from the beginning of history as a way of differentiating from others. These procedures have been observed in different cultures, but were particularly widespread in Mesoamerica. The authors examined and reviewed the historical and anthropological literature of intentional deformation practices in Mayan culture. The Mayans performed different types of cranial deformations and used different techniques and instruments to deform children's heads. The most remarkable morphological alteration is seen in the flattening of the frontal bone. Some archeological investigations link deformation types with specific periods. This article provides a glance at the cultural environment of the Mayans and demonstrates the heterogeneity of this interesting cultural phenomenon, which has changed over time.

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Thalia Estefania Sanchez Correa, David Gallardo Ceja and Diego Mendez-Rosito

Brainstem cavernous malformation management is complex due to its critical location and deleterious effect when bleeding. Therefore, every case should be thoroughly analyzed preoperatively. We present the case of a female patient with a midbrain cavernous malformation. A comprehensive anatomical and clinical analysis of the surgical corridors is done to decide the safest route. A subtemporal approach was done and the lateral mesencephalic sulcus and vein were important anatomical landmarks to guide the safe entry zone. Nuances of technique and surgical pearls related to the safe entry zones of the midbrain are discussed and illustrated in this operative video.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/vYA-IgiT2lU.

Open access

Diego Mendez-Rosito, Iván Méndez Guerrero, Sergio Reyna Heredia and David Gallardo Ceja

Surgery of glomus jugulare tumors is complex, but when these tumors have a large intradural component and cause brainstem compression they became a challenge to the surgeon. It is crucial to preoperatively understand the anatomy of the tumor and analyze its relationship with the temporal bone, facial nerve, and foramen jugular neurovascular structures. We present a case of a male patient with a complex glomus jugulare tumor causing severe brainstem compression. Nuances of technique and surgical pearls related to the management of complex jugulare tumors are discussed and illustrated in this operative video.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/oCjzp0kFRGc.