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Endovascular management of intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

Felipe C. Albuquerque, David J. Fiorella, Patrick P. Han, Vivek R. Deshmukh, Louis J. Kim, and Cameron G. Mcdougall

Object

Intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms often present with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and dramatic neurological injury. The authors reviewed the management of 23 cases in an effort to evaluate treatment efficacy and outcomes.

Methods

The records of 23 patients who underwent endovascular treatment were reviewed to determine symptoms, type of therapy, complications, and clinical outcomes. All patients were evaluated using records kept in a prospectively maintained database.

Ten men and 13 women (age range 35–72 years; mean age 49 years) were treated over an 8-year period. Twelve patients presented with poor-grade SAH, five with good-grade SAH, three with headache, and two with stroke. The other patient's aneurysm was discovered incidentally. Treatment included coil occlusion of the artery at the aneurysm in 21 patients and stent-assisted coil placement in two. Parent artery sacrifice was successful in all cases, whereas both patients treated with stent-assisted coil insertion suffered recurrences. No patient sustained permanent complications as a result of treatment. Two patients died due to the severity of their original SAH. Findings were normal in 14 patients on follow-up review (including five of the 12 presenting with poor-grade SAH), five had fixed neurological deficits but were able to care for themselves, and one was permanently disabled.

Conclusions

Despite their often aggressive neurological presentation, intracranial VA dissecting aneurysms can be managed safely with coil occlusion of the lesion and/or parent artery. Even patients presenting in poor neurological condition may improve dramatically.

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Safety and efficacy of the Pipeline embolization device for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a pooled analysis of 3 large studies

David F. Kallmes, Waleed Brinjikji, Saruhan Cekirge, David Fiorella, Ricardo A. Hanel, Pascal Jabbour, Demetrius Lopes, Pedro Lylyk, Cameron G. McDougall, and Adnan Siddiqui

OBJECTIVE

The authors performed a pooled analysis of 3 studies—IntrePED (International Retrospective Study of the Pipeline Embolization Device), PUFS (Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms Study), and ASPIRe (Aneurysm Study of Pipeline in an Observational Registry)—in order to assess angiographic outcomes and clinical safety of the Pipeline embolization device (PED).

METHODS

IntrePED was a retrospective study, while PUFS and ASPIRe were prospective studies. For each patient included in these studies, the authors collected baseline demographic data, aneurysm characteristics, and procedural details. The primary outcomes for this combined analysis were clinical outcomes, including neurological morbidity and mortality and major ipsilateral intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. The secondary outcomes were angiographic occlusion rates, which were available for ASPIRe and PUFS only.

RESULTS

A total of 1092 patients with 1221 aneurysms were included across the 3 studies. The mean aneurysm size was 12.0 ± 7.8 mm and the mean neck size was 6.6 ± 4.8 mm. The major ipsilateral ischemic stroke rate was 3.7% (40/1091). The major ipsilateral intracranial hemorrhage rate was 2.0% (22/1091). The major neurological morbidity rate was 5.7% (62/1091). The neurological mortality rate was 3.3% (36/1091). The combined major morbidity and neurological mortality rate was 7.1% (78/1091). The complete occlusion rates were 75.0% at 180 days (111/148) and 85.5% at 1 year (94/110). The overall aneurysm retreatment rate was 3.0% (33/1091) at a mean follow-up time of 10.2 ± 10.8 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with the PED is safe and effective. Angiographic occlusion rates progressed with follow-up. Rates of stroke, hemorrhage, morbidity and mortality, and retreatment were low, especially given the fact that the aneurysms treated were generally large and wide necked.

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Histopathological assessment of fatal ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhages after the treatment of supraclinoid aneurysms with the Pipeline Embolization Device

Report of 3 cases

Yin C. Hu, Vivek R. Deshmukh, Felipe C. Albuquerque, David Fiorella, Randal R. Nixon, Donald V. Heck, Stanley L. Barnwell, and Cameron G. McDougall

Object

Delayed ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhage has been observed following aneurysm treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED). The relationship of this phenomenon to the device and/or procedure remains unclear. The authors present the results of histopathological analyses of the brain sections from 3 patients in whom fatal ipsilateral intracerebral hemorrhages developed several days after uneventful PED treatment of supraclinoid aneurysms.

Methods

Microscopic analyses revealed foreign material occluding small vessels within the hemorrhagic area in all patients. Further analyses of the embolic materials using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted on specimens from 2 of the 3 patients. Although microscopically identical, the quantity of material recovered from the third patient was insufficient for FTIR spectroscopy.

Results

FTIR spectroscopy showed that the foreign material was polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a substance that is commonly used in the coatings of interventional devices.

Conclusions

These findings are suggestive of a potential association between intraprocedural foreign body emboli and post-PED treatment–delayed ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhage.

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Immediate flow-diversion characteristics of a novel primarily bioresorbable flow-diverting stent

Sandeep Muram, Ronan Corcoran, Jillian Cooke, Kendall Forrester, Elana Lapins, Rosalie Morrish, Osama Zahoor Ahmad Cheema, Mayank Goyal, Muneer Eesa, David Fiorella, John H. Wong, Chander Sadasivan, and Alim P. Mitha

OBJECTIVE

Flow-diverting stents with a resorbable component have significant theoretical benefits over full metal stents, although currently there are none in clinical use. In this study, the authors sought to determine the immediate flow-diversion characteristics of a novel primarily bioresorbable flow-diverting stent.

METHODS

Bioresorbable stents were deployed into glass tube models to determine porosity and pore density. In vitro flow diversion behavior was evaluated using high frame rate angiography under pulsatile flow conditions in a patient-specific silicone aneurysm model treated with the resorbable stent as well as the Surpass Evolve stent. In vivo flow diversion was characterized by deployment into 20 rabbit saccular aneurysm models, and grading was based on the O’Kelly-Marotta scale and the 4F-flow diversion predictive score.

RESULTS

Porosities and pore densities of the bioresorbable stent were in the flow-diverting range for all target vessel diameters. Quantified results of immediate angiography after placement of the bioresorbable stent into a silicone aneurysm model demonstrated greater flow diversion compared to the Evolve stent. Bioresorbable stent placement in saccular aneurysm models resulted in an immediate O’Kelly-Marotta grade of A3 or better and a 4F-flow diversion predictive score of 4 or better in all cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The bioresorbable stent has immediate flow-diversion characteristics that are comparable to commercially available metal stents. Longer-term studies are underway to determine the ability of the resorbable fibers to act as a neointimal scaffold and result in long-term aneurysm occlusion.