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Xavier T. J. Hsu, Chih-Hsiang Liao, Chun-Fu Lin and Sanford P. C. Hsu

A 57-year-old man presented with acute changes in mental status. Brain CT showed a high-density lesion at the pons. Brain MRA revealed a very slow-flow vascular lesion at the right aspect of the pons, about 3.9 ⋅ 3.0 ⋅ 3.0 cm3, compatible with a pontine cavernous malformation (CM). Gross-total removal was achieved. In this approach, a wider surgical corridor was obtained by opening the Meckel’s cave and cutting the tentorium. For a midline attack point on the pons, additional removal of the posterior clinoid process can meet the goal. In the authors’ opinion, this approach is safe and effective in selected ventrolateral pontine CMs.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/moHqEkp5eCA.

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Chih-Hsiang Liao, Chun-Fu Lin, Sanford PC. Hsu, Min-Hsiung Chen and Yang-Hsin Shih

Symptomatic intracavernous aneurysm is rare. Cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus are subjected to the mass effect of an expanding aneurysm. Microsurgical clipping is the treatment of choice to relieve compressive cranial neuropathy. In this video, the authors present a case of intracavernous aneurysm causing diplopia, ptosis, and facial numbness. The patient was operated on via a pretemporal transclinoid-transcavernous approach. The aneurysm was completely obliterated through direct clipping. There were no new-onset neurologic deficits and complications after the operation. Complete recovery of the diplopia, ptosis, and facial numbness was observed at the 6-month postoperative follow up.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/4w5QUoNIAQM.

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Chien-Yi Chiang, Meei-Ling Sheu, Fu-Chou Cheng, Chun-Jung Chen, Hong-Lin Su, Jason Sheehan and Hung-Chuan Pan

Object

Neuropathic pain is debilitating, and when chronic, it significantly affects the patient physically, psychologically, and socially. The neurobehavior of animals used as a model for chronic constriction injury seems analogous to the neurobehavior of humans with neuropathic pain. However, no data depicting the severity of histomorphological alterations of the nervous system associated with graded changes in neurobehavior are available. To determine the severity of histomorphological alteration related to neurobehavior, the authors created a model of chronic constrictive injury of varying intensity in rats and used the CatWalk XT system to evaluate neurobehavior.

Methods

A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250–300 g each, were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups that would receive sham surgery or 1, 2, 3, or 4 ligatures of 3-0 chromic gut loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve. Neurobehavior was assessed by CatWalk XT, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanic allodynia before injury and periodically after injury. The nerve tissue from skin to dorsal spinal cord was obtained for histomorphological analysis 1 week after injury, and brain evoked potentials were analyzed 4 weeks after injury.

Results.

Significant differences in expression of nerve growth factor existed in skin, and the differences were associated with the intensity of nerve injury. After injury, expression of cluster of differentiation 68 and tumor necrosis factor–α was increased, and expression of S100 protein in the middle of the injured nerve was decreased. Increased expression of synaptophysin in the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal spinal cord correlated with the intensity of injury. The amplitude of sensory evoked potential increased with greater severity of nerve damage. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia did not differ significantly among treatment groups at various time points. CatWalk XT gait analysis indicated significant differences for print areas, maximum contact maximum intensity, stand phase, swing phase, single stance, and regular index, with sham and/or intragroup comparisons.

Conclusions.

Histomorphological and electrophysiological alterations were associated with severity of nerve damage. Subtle neurobehavioral differences were detected by the CatWalk XT system but not by mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesia. Thus, the CatWalk XT system should be a useful tool for monitoring changes in neuropathic pain, especially subtle alterations.

Free access

Chih-Hsiang Liao, Jui-To Wang, Chun-Fu Lin, Shao-Ching Chen, Chung-Jung Lin, Sanford P. C. Hsu and Min-Hsiung Chen

OBJECTIVE

Despite the advances in skull base techniques, large petroclival meningiomas (PCMs) still pose a challenge to neurosurgeons. The authors’ objective of this study was to describe a pretemporal trans–Meckel’s cave transtentorial approach for large PCMs and to report the surgical outcomes.

METHODS

From 2014 to 2017, patients harboring large PCMs (> 3 cm) and undergoing their first resection via this procedure at the authors’ institute were included. In combination with pretemporal transcavernous and anterior transpetrosal approaches, the trans–Meckel’s cave transtentorial route was created. Surgical details are described and a video demonstrating the procedure is included. Retrospective review of the medical records and imaging studies was performed.

RESULTS

A total of 18 patients (6 men and 12 women) were included in this study, with mean age of 53 years. The mean sizes of the preoperative and postoperative PCMs were 4.36 cm × 4.09 cm × 4.13 cm (length × width × height) and 0.83 cm × 1.08 cm × 0.75 cm, respectively. Gross-total removal was performed in 7 patients, near-total removal (> 95%) in 7 patients, and subtotal removal in 4 patients (> 90% in 3 patients and > 85% in 1 patient). There were no surgical deaths or patients with postoperative hemiplegia. Surgical complications included transient cranial nerve (CN) III palsy (all patients, resolved in 3 months), transient CN VI palsy (2 patients), CN IV palsy (3 patients, partial recovery), hydrocephalus (3 patients), and CSF otorrhea (1 patient). Temporal lobe retraction–related neurological deficits were not observed.

CONCLUSIONS

A pretemporal trans–Meckel’s cave transtentorial approach offers large surgical exposure and multiple trajectories to the suprasellar, interpeduncular, prepontine, and upper-half clival regions without overt traction, which is mandatory to remove large PCMs. To unlock Meckel’s cave where a large PCM lies abutting the cave, pretemporal transcavernous and anterior transpetrosal approaches are prerequisites to create adequate exposure for the final trans–Meckel’s cave step.

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Chih-Hsiang Liao, Chung-Jung Lin, Chun-Fu Lin, Hsin-Yi Huang, Min-Hsiung Chen, Sanford P. C. Hsu and Yang-Hsin Shih

OBJECTIVE

The treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms remains challenging. It is important to determine the exact location of the paraclinoid aneurysm when considering treatment options. The authors herein evaluated the effectiveness of using the optic strut (OS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) as radiographic landmarks for distinguishing between intradural and extradural paraclinoid aneurysms on source images from CT angiography (CTA).

METHODS

Between January 2010 and September 2013, a total of 49 surgical patients with the preoperative diagnoses of paraclinoid aneurysm and 1 symptomatic cavernous-clinoid aneurysm were retrospectively identified. With the source images from CTA, the OS and the TS were used as landmarks to predict the location of the paraclinoid aneurysm and its relation to the distal dural ring (DDR). The operative findings were examined to confirm the definitive location of the paraclinoid aneurysm. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of the landmarks.

RESULTS

Nineteen patients without preoperative CTA were excluded. The remaining 30 patients comprised the current study. The intraoperative findings confirmed 12 intradural, 12 transitional, and 6 extradural paraclinoid aneurysms, the diagnoses of which were significantly related to the type of aneurysm (p < 0.05) but not factors like sex, age, laterality of aneurysm, or relation of the aneurysm to the ophthalmic artery on digital subtraction angiography. To measure agreement with the correct diagnosis, the OS as a reference point was far superior to the TS (Cohen's kappa coefficients 0.462 and 0.138 for the OS and the TS, respectively). For paraclinoid aneurysms of the medial or posterior type, using the base of the OS as a reference point tended to overestimate intradural paraclinoid aneurysms. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that if the aneurysmal neck traverses the axial plane 2 mm above the base of the OS, the aneurysm is most likely to grow across the DDR and present as a transitional aneurysm (sensitivity 0.806; specificity 0.792).

CONCLUSIONS

High-resolution thin-cut CTA is a fast and crucial tool for diagnosing paraclinoid aneurysms. The OS serves as an effective landmark in CTA source images for distinguishing between intradural and extradural paraclinoid aneurysms. The DDR is supposed to be located 2 mm above the base of the OS in axial planes.