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Chih-Hsiang Liao, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Wei-Hsin Wang, Peng-Yuan Chang, Henrich Cheng and Yang-Shih

Surgical treatment of thoracic disc herniation is technically challenging from anterior, lateral or posterior approaches. Because of the deeply located thoracic discs and non-retractable thoracic thecal sac, standard anterior and lateral procedures for discectomy require extensive tissue dissection causing prolonged lengths of stay in hospital. In this video, the authors present a case of calcified disc herniation at the level of T10/11 causing paraplegia and voiding difficulty. The patient was operated on via an endoscope-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal thoracic interbody fusion (EA-TTIF). The herniated disc and calcification were removed through a 26-mm tubular retractor, under microscopes via a unilateral transpedicular approach. The endoscopes were used for direct visualization of the ventral thecal sac and confirmation of complete decompression. After the operation, the patient's neurological function completely recovered. Minimally invasive EA-TTIF is a viable and effective option for the surgical management of thoracic disc herniation. Thoracic interbody fusion can be achieved through a minimally invasive approach from the back.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/54rRMtvSyCM.

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Hsuan-Kan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Diego Shih-Chieh Lin, Chih-Chang Chang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng

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Chun-Hung Tseng, Wei-Shih Huang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Yen-Jung Chang and Fung-Chang Sung

OBJECT

Inflammation may provoke cerebral arteriolar ectasia, inducing microaneurysm formation and further promoting intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Chronic osteomyelitis (COM) is an inflammatory disorder for which study of its role in ICH is lacking. This study explored whether COM increases the risk of ICH.

METHODS

From Taiwan national insurance inpatient claims, 22,052 patients who were newly diagnosed with COM between 1997 and 2010 were identified; 88, 207 age and sex frequency-matched subjects without COM were selected at random for comparison. Risks of ICH associated with COM and comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and drug abuse, were assessed by the end of 2010.

RESULTS

The incidence of ICH was 1.68 times higher in the COM cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.50 (95% CI 1.29–1.74) estimated in the multivariable Cox model. Age-specific analysis showed that the HR of ICH for COM patients decreased with age, with an adjusted HR of 3.28 (95% CI 1.88–5.75) in the < 40-year age group, which declined to 1.11 (95% CI 0.88–1.40) in the elderly. The incidence of ICH increased with the severity of COM; for those with severe COM the adjusted HR was 4.42 (95% CI 3.31–5.89). For subjects without comorbidities, the incidence of ICH was 1.20-fold (95% CI 1.00–1.45) higher in the COM cohort than in the comparison cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests for the first time that COM is an inflammatory factor associated with increased risk of ICH, especially in younger patients.

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Chih-Chang Chang, Ching-Lan Wu, Jau-Ching Wu, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng

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Tsung-Hsi Tu, Chih-Chang Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Li-Yu Fay, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng

The most commonly accepted indications for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) are 1- and 2-level cervical disc herniation or spondylosis causing radiculopathy or myelopathy that is refractory to medical management. Unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), which eliminates motion, CDA aims to restore the physiological range of motion of the indexed joint. Thus, the effect of indirect decompression gained by the insertion of a sufficiently large interbody graft and incorporation into arthrodesis after ACDF cannot be duplicated for CDA. For patients undergoing CDA, during extreme flexion/extension or rotation, the exiting nerve roots might be impinged by inadequately decompressed foraminal osteophytes. Therefore, the authors advocate generous decompression, including resection of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and bilateral uncovertebral joints (UVJs), even in the asymptomatic side. This video demonstrates full dural expansion and enlarged neuroforamen after removal of the PLL and UVJs. Venous hemorrhage encountered during foraminotomy can always be controlled by cottonoid packing or hemostatic agents. Also, the endplates of the surrounding vertebral bodies were meticulously prepared for parallel insertion of the ProDisc-C Nova (DePuy Synthes Spine) artificial disc. Please note that the ProDisc-C Nova is currently not available on the US market.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/XUo34j6WFYs.

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Chih-Chang Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Peng-Yuan Chang, Mei-Yin Yeh, Yi-Hsuan Kuo, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng

There are many kinds of artificial discs available for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), with various designs of fixation and articulation mechanisms. Each of these designs has different features and theoretically fits most optimally in selected types of patients. However, there has been insufficient literature to guide individualized selection among these CDA devices. Since CDA aims to restore the joint function rather than arthrodesis, tailor-made size, shape, and mechanical properties should be taken into account for each candidate's target disc. Despite several large-scale prospective randomized control trials that have demonstrated the effectiveness and durability of CDA for up to 8 years, none of them involved more than one kind of artificial disc. In this video the authors present detailed steps and technical aspects of the newly introduced ProDisc-C Vivo (DePuy Synthes Spine), which has the same ball-and-socket design for controlled, predictable motion as the ProDisc-C. The newly derived teeth fixation provides high primary stability and multilevel capability by avoidance of previous keel-related limitations and complications (e.g., split vertebral fracture). Please note that the ProDisc-C Vivo is currently not available on the US market.

The authors present the case of a 53-year-old woman who had symptoms of both radiculopathy and myelopathy caused by a large, calcified disc herniation at C4–5. There was no improvement after 4 months of medical treatment and rehabilitation. A single-level CDA was successfully performed with the ProDisc-C Vivo, and her symptoms were completely ameliorated afterward. The follow-up images demonstrated preservation of motion at the indexed level.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/4DSES1xgvQU.

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Hsuan-Kan Chang, Chih-Chang Chang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Li-Yu Fay, Peng-Yuan Chang, Ching-Lan Wu and Henrich Cheng

OBJECTIVE

Many reports have successfully demonstrated that cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) can preserve range of motion after 1- or 2-level discectomy. However, few studies have addressed the extent of changes in segmental mobility after CDA or their clinical correlations.

METHODS

Data from consecutive patients who underwent 1-level CDA were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery were medically intractable degenerative disc disease and spondylosis. Clinical outcomes, including visual analog scale (VAS)–measured neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, were analyzed. Radiographic outcomes, including C2–7 Cobb angle, the difference between pre- and postoperative C2–7 Cobb angle (ΔC2–7 Cobb angle), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), the difference between pre- and postoperative SVA (ΔSVA), segmental range of motion (ROM), and the difference between pre- and postoperative ROM (ΔROM), were assessed for their association with clinical outcomes. All patients underwent CT scanning, by which the presence and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO) were determined during the follow-up.

RESULTS

A total of 50 patients (mean age 45.6 ± 9.33 years) underwent a 1-level CDA (Prestige LP disc) and were followed up for a mean duration of 27.7 ± 8.76 months. All clinical outcomes, including VAS, NDI, and JOA scores, improved significantly after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative ROM values were similar (mean 9.5° vs 9.0°, p > 0.05) at each indexed level. The mean changes in segmental mobility (ΔROM) were −0.5° ± 6.13°. Patients with increased segmental mobility after surgery (ΔROM > 0°) had a lower incidence of HO and HO that was less severe (p = 0.048) than those whose ΔROM was < 0°. Segmental mobility (ROM) was significantly lower in patients with higher HO grade (p = 0.012), but it did not affect the clinical outcomes. The preoperative and postoperative C2–7 Cobb angles and SVA remained similar. The postoperative C2–7 Cobb angles, SVA, ΔC2–7 Cobb angles, and ΔSVA were not correlated to clinical outcomes after CDA.

CONCLUSIONS

Segmental mobility (as reflected by the mean ROM) and overall cervical alignment (i.e., mean SVA and C2–7 Cobb angle) had no significant impact on clinical outcomes after 1-level CDA. Patients with increased segmental mobility (ΔROM > 0°) had significantly less HO and similarly improved clinical outcomes than those with decreased segmental mobility (ΔROM < 0°).

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Yu-Wen Cheng, Peng-Yuan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Chih-Chang Chang, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng