Alim P. Mitha, John H. Wong, Michael D. Hill and Mayank Goyal
Adib A. Abla, Jay D. Turner, Alim P. Mitha, Gregory Lekovic and Robert F. Spetzler
Brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are low-flow vascular lesions in eloquent locations. Their presentation is often marked with symptomatic hemorrhages that appear to occur more frequently than hemorrhage from supratentorial cavernomas. Brainstem CMs can be removed using 1 of the 5 standard skull-base approaches: retrosigmoid, suboccipital (with or without telovelar approach), supracerebellar infratentorial, orbitozygomatic, and far lateral.
Patients being referred to a tertiary institution often have lesions that are aggressive with respect to bleeding rates. Nonetheless, the indications for surgery, in the authors' opinion, are the same for all lesions: those that are symptomatic, those that cause mass effect, or those that abut a pial surface. Patients often have relapsing and remitting courses of symptoms, with each hemorrhage causing a progressive and stepwise decline. Many patients experience new postoperative deficits, most of which are transient and resolve fully. Despite the risks associated with operating in this highly eloquent tissue, most patients have had favorable outcomes in the authors' experience. Surgical treatment of brainstem CMs protects patients from the potentially devastating effects of rehemorrhage, and the authors believe that the benefits of intervention outweigh the risks in patients with the appropriate indications.
Michael K. Tso, Myunghyun M. Lee, Chad G. Ball, William F. Morrish, Alim P. Mitha, Andrew W. Kirkpatrick and John H. Wong
Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) occurs in approximately 1% of the blunt trauma population and may lead to stroke and death. Early vascular imaging in asymptomatic patients at high risk of having BCVI may lead to earlier diagnosis and possible stroke prevention. The objective of this study was to determine if the implementation of a formalized asymptomatic BCVI screening protocol with CT angiography (CTA) would lead to improved BCVI detection and stroke prevention.
Patients with vascular imaging studies were identified from a prospective trauma registry at a single Level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Detection of BCVI and stroke rates were compared during the 3-year periods before and after implementation of a consensus-based asymptomatic BCVI screening protocol using CTA in 2005.
A total of 5480 patients with trauma were identified. The overall BCVI detection rate remained unchanged postprotocol compared with preprotocol (0.8% [24 of 3049 patients] vs 0.9% [23 of 2431 patients]; p = 0.53). However, postprotocol there was a trend toward a decreased risk of stroke secondary to BCVI on a trauma population basis (0.23% [7 of 3049 patients] vs 0.53% [13 of 2431 patients]; p = 0.06). Overall, 75% (35 of 47) of patients with BCVI were treated with antiplatelet agents, but no patient developed new or progressive intracranial hemorrhage despite 70% of these patients having concomitant traumatic brain injury.
The results of this study suggest that a CTA screening protocol for BCVI may be of clinical benefit with possible reduction in ischemic complications. The treatment of BCVI with antiplatelet agents appears to be safe.
Xiao Wu, David Durand, Vivek B. Kalra, Renu Liu and Ajay Malhotra
Michael B. Avery, Ahmed Alaqeel, Amy B. Bromley, Yong-Xiang Chen, John H. Wong, Muneer Eesa and Alim P. Mitha
Reliable animal models are an important aspect of translational research, especially for relatively uncommon clinical entities such as fusiform aneurysms. While several animal models exist, very few are tailored to cerebral fusiform aneurysms, which have unique attributes compared to abdominal fusiform aneurysms. The authors aimed to build from previous models to create a cerebral fusiform aneurysm model that is simple to use and reliable.
Twelve female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to 3 groups: group E, elastase only; group C, CaCl2 only; group EC, elastase + CaCl2. All rabbits underwent surgical exposure of the right common carotid artery (CCA) and 20 minutes of peri-carotid incubation with their respective chemicals. Angiography was performed 6 weeks later for arterial dilation measurements, with 50% increase in diameter being defined as fusiform aneurysm formation. The arterial segments, along with the contralateral CCAs, were harvested and assessed histologically for wall component measurements and elastin semiquantification. A separate rabbit underwent aneurysm creation per the group EC protocol and was treated with an endovascular flow-diversion device.
All of the group EC rabbits developed fusiform aneurysms (mean dilation of 88%), while none of the group E or group C rabbits developed aneurysms (p = 0.001). Histological analysis revealed increased internal elastic lamina fragmentation in the group EC aneurysms, which also had less tunica intima hyperplasia. All aneurysms exhibited thinning of the tunica media and reduction in elastin content. The use of an endovascular flow-diverting stent was successful, with complete parent vessel remodeling, as expected, 4 weeks after deployment.
The peri-arterial application of combined elastase and CaCl2 to the CCA appears sufficient to reliably produce fusiform aneurysms after 6 weeks. Exposure to elastase or CaCl2 individually appears insufficient, despite the observed histological changes to the arterial wall. The proposed fusiform aneurysm model is able to accommodate endovascular devices, simulating the tortuous pathway experienced in using such devices in human cerebral aneurysms and thus is a satisfactory model to use in translational research.