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Ripul R. Panchal, Huy T. Duong, Kiarash Shahlaie and Kee D. Kim

Posterior neck deformity with an unsightly crater-like defect may result after cervicothoracic laminectomies. The authors present a new technique, spinous process reconstruction, to address this problem. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive quadriparesis secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Previously he had undergone multiple neck surgeries including cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy. Postoperatively, he developed severe craniocervical spinal deformity and a large painful concave surgical defect in the neck. The authors performed craniocervical decompression and craniocervicothoracic instrumented stabilization. At the same time, cervicothoracic spinous process reconstruction was performed using titanium mesh to address the defect. Cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy results in varying degrees of neck defect with resulting unsightly and an often painful surgical wound defect despite an appropriate multilayer closure. The presented spinous process reconstruction is a simple technique to address this problem with good clinical outcome.

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Korak Sarkar, Krista Keachie, UyenThao Nguyen, J. Paul Muizelaar, Marike Zwienenberg-Lee and Kiarash Shahlaie


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of injury, hospitalization, and death among pediatric patients. Admission CT scans play an important role in classifying TBI and directing clinical care, but little is known about the differences in CT findings between pediatric and adult patients. The aim of this study was to determine if radiographic differences exist between adult and pediatric TBI.


The authors retrospectively analyzed TBI registry data from 1206 consecutive patients with nonpenetrating TBI treated at a Level 1 adult and pediatric trauma center over a 30-month period.


The distribution of sex, race, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was not significantly different between the adult and pediatric populations; however, the distribution of CT findings was significantly different. Pediatric patients with TBI were more likely to have skull fractures (OR 3.21, p < 0.01) and epidural hematomas (OR 1.96, p < 0.01). Pediatric TBI was less likely to be associated with contusion, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or compression of the basal cisterns (p < 0.05). Rotterdam CT scores were significantly lower in the pediatric population (2.3 vs 2.6, p < 0.001).


There are significant differences in the CT findings in pediatric versus adult TBI, despite statistical similarities with regard to clinical severity of injury as measured by the GCS. These differences may be due to anatomical characteristics, the biomechanics of injury, and/or differences in injury mechanisms between pediatric and adult patients. The unique characteristics of pediatric TBI warrant consideration when formulating a clinical trial design or predicting functional outcome using prognostic models developed from adult TBI data.