✓ Herbert Olivecrona was one of the pioneers of modern neurosurgery. In one of his articles, published more than half a century ago, Olivecrona shared his thoughts on the development of neurosurgery in the first half of the twentieth century and his vision regarding the future of neurosurgery and neurosurgical training. In the present paper, the authors communicate their reflections and thoughts on Herbert Olivecrona's visionary article.
Theofilos G. Machinis and Kostas N. Fountas
Theofilos G. Machinis, Kostas N. Fountas, Vassilios Dimopoulos and Joe Sam Robinson
The purpose of this article is to provide insight into the development of surgery for acoustic neurinomas throughout the years. The significant contribution of surgical authorities such as Cushing, Dandy, and House are discussed. The advances in surgical techniques from the very first operations for acoustic tumors at the end of the 19th century until today are described, with special emphasis on the technological and diagnostic milestones that preceded each step of this development.
Vassilios Dimopoulos, Kostas N. Fountas, Theofilos G. Machinis, Carlos Feltes, Induk Chung, Kim Johnston, Joe Sam Robinson and Arthur Grigorian
Cauda equina syndrome is a well-documented complication of uneventful lumbar microdiscectomy. In the vast majority of cases, no radiological explanation can be obtained. In this paper, the authors report two cases of postoperative cauda equina syndrome in patients undergoing single-level de novo lumbar microdiscectomy in which intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring was used. In both patients, the amplitudes of cortical and subcortical intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) abruptly decreased during discectomy and foraminotomy. In the first patient, a slow, partial improvement of SSEPs was observed before the end of the operation, whereas no improvement was observed in the second patient. In the first case, clinical findings consistent with cauda equina syndrome were seen immediately postoperatively, whereas in the second one the symptoms developed within 1.5 hours after the procedure. Postoperative magnetic resonance images obtained in both patients, and a lumbar myelogram obtained in the second one revealed no signs of conus medullaris or nerve root compression. Both patients showed marked improvement after an intense course of rehabilitation. The authors' findings support the proposition that intraoperative SSEP monitoring may be useful in predicting the development of cauda equina syndrome in patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy. Nevertheless, further prospective clinical studies are necessary for validation of these findings.