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Martin J. Rutkowski, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis Blevins and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome consisting of neurological and endocrine abnormalities secondary to hemorrhage or ischemia of an underlying pituitary adenoma. The authors investigated whether there was a significant difference in neurological, endocrine, and nonneuroendocrine outcomes for patients with pituitary apoplexy, based on the time between symptom onset and surgical intervention.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 32 patients who had presented to their institution with acute pituitary apoplexy and subsequently undergone endonasal transsphenoidal resection in the period from 2003 to 2014. All patients had undergone preoperative MRI demonstrating evidence of apoplexy in the form of intratumoral hemorrhage, ischemia, and necrosis. Neurological deficits, partial or complete endocrinopathy, and nonneuroendocrine abnormalities were analyzed both pre- and postoperatively.

RESULTS

Preoperatively, neurological deficits including visual loss and cranial nerve palsies were found in 31 (97%) of the 32 patients, endocrinopathy in the form of partial or panhypopituitarism was seen in 28 patients (88%), and nonneuroendocrine signs and symptoms were seen in 32 patients (100%). Thirteen patients (41%) underwent surgery within 72 hours of symptom onset (“early”), whereas 19 patients (59%) underwent surgery more than 72 hours from symptom onset (“delayed”). Early versus delayed resection did not appear to significantly improve visual deficits, total visual loss, resolution of oculomotor palsy, recovery from hypopituitarism, or nonneuroendocrine signs and symptoms such as headache and encephalopathy. Overall, visual improvement was seen in 77% of patients, complete restoration of normal vision in 38% of patients, and resolution of preoperative oculomotor palsies in 81% of patients. Only 6 (21%) of 28 patients showed evidence of partial hormone recovery following preoperative hypopituitarism. An absence of benefit for early surgery held true even when considering time to surgery from symptom onset as a continuous variable.

CONCLUSIONS

Neurological deficits such as visual loss and cranial neuropathies show moderate improvement following surgical decompression, as does preoperative hypopituitarism. The timing of surgical intervention relative to the onset of symptoms does not appear to significantly affect the resolution of neurological or endocrinological deficits.

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Arman Jahangiri, Annette M. Molinaro, Phiroz E. Tarapore, Lewis Blevins Jr., Kurtis I. Auguste, Nalin Gupta, Sandeep Kunwar and Manish K. Aghi

Object

Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are benign sellar lesions most often found in adults, and more infrequently in children. They are generally asymptomatic but sometimes require surgical treatment through a transsphenoidal corridor. The purpose of this study was to compare adult versus pediatric cases of RCC.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed presenting symptoms, MR imaging findings, laboratory study results, and pathological findings in 147 adult and 14 pediatric patients who underwent surgery for treatment of RCCs at the University of Californial at San Francisco between 1996 and 2008.

Results

In both the adult and pediatric groups, most patients were female (78% of adults, 79% of pediatric patients, p = 0.9). Headache was the most common symptom in both groups (reported by 50% of pediatric patients and 33% of adults, p = 0.2). Preoperative hypopituitarism occurred in 41% of adults and 45% of pediatric patients (p = 0.8). Growth delay, a uniquely pediatric finding, was a presenting sign in 29% of pediatric patients. Visual complaints were a presenting symptom in 16% of adult and 7% of pediatric patients (p = 0.4). There was no difference between median cyst size in adults versus pediatric patients (1.2 cm in both, p = 0.7). Temporary or permanent postoperative diabetes insipidus occurred in 12% of adults and 21% of pediatric patients (p = 0.4). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an 8% RCC recurrence rate at 2 years for each group (p = 0.5).

Conclusions

The incidence of RCCs is much lower in the pediatric population; however, symptoms, imaging findings, and outcomes are similar, suggesting that pediatric RCCs arise from growth of remnants of the embryonic Rathke pouch earlier in life than adult RCCs but do not differ in any other way. It is important to consider RCCs in the differential diagnosis when pediatric patients present with visual impairment, unexplained headache, or hypopituitarism including growth delay. Although the average RCC size was similar in our pediatric and adult patient groups, the smaller size of the pituitary gland in pediatric patients suggests an increased relative RCC size.