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Ryo Taiji, Masanari Takami, Yasutsugu Yukawa, Hiroshi Hashizume, Akihito Minamide, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Hideto Nishi, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Shunji Tsutsui, Motohiro Okada, Sae Okada, Masatoshi Teraguchi, Shizumasa Murata, Takuhei Kozaki, and Hiroshi Yamada

OBJECTIVE

Various surgical treatments have been reported for vertebral pseudarthrosis after osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF). However, the outcomes are not always good. The authors now have some experience with combined anterior-posterior short-segment spinal fusion (1 level above and 1 level below the fracture) using a wide-foot-plate expandable cage. Here, they report their surgical outcomes with this procedure.

METHODS

Between June 2016 and August 2018, 16 consecutive patients (4 male and 12 female; mean age 75.1 years) underwent short-segment spinal fusion for vertebral pseudarthrosis or delayed collapse after OVF. The mean observation period was 20.1 months. The level of the fractured vertebra was T12 in 4 patients, L1 in 3, L2 in 4, L3 in 3, and L4 in 2. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the lumbar Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale and 100-mm visual analog scale for low-back pain. Local kyphotic angle, intervertebral height, bone union rate, and instrumentation-related adverse events were investigated as imaging outcomes. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

RESULTS

The mean operating time was 334.3 minutes (range 256–517 minutes), and the mean blood loss was 424.9 ml (range 30–1320 ml). The only perioperative complication was a superficial infection of the posterior wound that was cured by irrigation. The lumbar JOA score and visual analog scale value improved from 11.2 and 58.8 mm preoperatively to 20.6 and 18.6 mm postoperatively, respectively. The mean local kyphotic angle and mean intervertebral height were 22.6° and 28.0 mm, respectively, before surgery, −1.5° and 40.5 mm immediately after surgery, and 7.0° and 37.1 mm at the final observation. Significant improvement was observed in both parameters immediately after surgery and at the final observation when compared with the preoperative values. Intraoperative endplate injury occurred in 8 cases, and progression of cage subsidence of 5 mm or more was observed in 2 of these cases. Proximal junctional kyphosis was observed in 2 cases. There were no cases of screw loosening. No cases required reoperation due to instrument-related adverse events. Bone union was observed in all 14 cases that had CT evaluation.

CONCLUSIONS

This short-segment fusion procedure is relatively minimally invasive, and local reconstruction and bone fusion have been achieved. This procedure is considered to be attempted for the surgical treatment of osteoporotic vertebral pseudarthrosis after OVF.

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Shizumasa Murata, Akihito Minamide, Masanari Takami, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Sae Okada, Kento Nonaka, Hiroshi Taneichi, Andrew J. Schoenfeld, Andrew K. Simpson, and Hiroshi Yamada

OBJECTIVE

Facet cysts may represent a sign of intrinsic facet disease and instability, increasing the importance of less-invasive approaches that limit tissue dissection and improve visualization. The authors developed an intraoperative cyst-dyeing technique, involving the injection of indigo carmine from the facet joint into the cyst, as an adjunct during decompression. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and perioperative complication rates of microendoscopic spinal decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS), caused by facet cysts and to elucidate the efficacy of the cyst-dyeing method in microendoscopic surgery for facet cysts.

METHODS

Forty-eight consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment with microendoscopic decompression for symptomatic LSS or LFS caused by facet cysts from 2011 to 2018 were reviewed. These patients were divided into two groups: a group that did not receive dye (N), with the patients undergoing surgery from April 2011 to May 2015; and a group that received dye (D), with patients undergoing surgery from June 2015 to March 2018. The authors evaluated the operative time, blood loss, perioperative complications, visual analog scale scores for low-back and leg pain, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores. Surgical outcome was evaluated 2 years postoperatively and was compared between groups D and N.

RESULTS

The clinical outcomes were generally excellent or good. Group N consisted of 36 patients and group D of 12 patients. Comparing the clinical results, it was found that the cyst-dyeing method reduced the perioperative complication rate, including reduction in dural tears to 0%, and shortened the average operative time by approximately 40 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors demonstrated that the clinical outcomes of microendoscopic spinal decompression in patients with LSS or LFS caused by facet-joint cysts are generally favorable. Additionally, the adjunctive cyst-dyeing method effectively delineated the cystic and dural boundaries, facilitating safer and more effective cyst separation and neural decompression. Microendoscopic surgery combined with this novel facet cyst-dyeing method is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for facet-joint cysts.

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Shizumasa Murata, Akihito Minamide, Masanari Takami, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Sae Okada, Kento Nonaka, Hiroshi Taneichi, Andrew J. Schoenfeld, Andrew K. Simpson, and Hiroshi Yamada

OBJECTIVE

Facet cysts may represent a sign of intrinsic facet disease and instability, increasing the importance of less-invasive approaches that limit tissue dissection and improve visualization. The authors developed an intraoperative cyst-dyeing technique, involving the injection of indigo carmine from the facet joint into the cyst, as an adjunct during decompression. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and perioperative complication rates of microendoscopic spinal decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS), caused by facet cysts and to elucidate the efficacy of the cyst-dyeing method in microendoscopic surgery for facet cysts.

METHODS

Forty-eight consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment with microendoscopic decompression for symptomatic LSS or LFS caused by facet cysts from 2011 to 2018 were reviewed. These patients were divided into two groups: a group that did not receive dye (N), with the patients undergoing surgery from April 2011 to May 2015; and a group that received dye (D), with patients undergoing surgery from June 2015 to March 2018. The authors evaluated the operative time, blood loss, perioperative complications, visual analog scale scores for low-back and leg pain, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores. Surgical outcome was evaluated 2 years postoperatively and was compared between groups D and N.

RESULTS

The clinical outcomes were generally excellent or good. Group N consisted of 36 patients and group D of 12 patients. Comparing the clinical results, it was found that the cyst-dyeing method reduced the perioperative complication rate, including reduction in dural tears to 0%, and shortened the average operative time by approximately 40 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors demonstrated that the clinical outcomes of microendoscopic spinal decompression in patients with LSS or LFS caused by facet-joint cysts are generally favorable. Additionally, the adjunctive cyst-dyeing method effectively delineated the cystic and dural boundaries, facilitating safer and more effective cyst separation and neural decompression. Microendoscopic surgery combined with this novel facet cyst-dyeing method is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for facet-joint cysts.