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The endoscopic anterior transmaxillary temporal pole approach for mesial temporal lobe epilepsies: a feasibility study

Jorge A. Gonzalez-Martinez, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Arka N. Mallela, Michael M. McDowell, Luke Henry, David T. Fernandes Cabral, James Sweat, Alexandra Urban, Joanna Fong, Niravkumar Barot, James F. Castellano, Vijayalakshmi Rajasekaran, Anto Bagic, Carl H. Snyderman, and Paul A. Gardner

fornix, at the level of the calcar avis, in the mesial wall of the atrium. FIG. 3. Axial T2-weighted pre- ( upper ) and postoperative ( lower ) MR images for patients 1 ( A and D ), 3 ( B and E ), and 4 ( C and F ). Note the selective resection of mesial temporal lobe structures and the mesial aspect of the TP. Pre- and postoperative MR images for patient 2 are displayed in Fig. 5 . All patients had a minimum postoperative follow-up of 12 months. The seizure outcome results revealed that 3 of 4 patients achieved Engel class Ia outcome up to the end of the