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Immunocompetent isolated cerebral mucormycosis presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus: illustrative case

Khoa N Nguyen, Lindsey M Freeman, Timothy H Ung, Steven Ojemann, and Fabio Grassia

to red blood cells (2,000) on cell count. The differential resulted in 8% neutrophils, 65% lymphocytes, and 27% monocytes. Cultures were negative. Four days later, the patient underwent planned endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). An intraoperative decision was made to also complete an endoscopic biopsy. Induction of general anesthesia, endotracheal intubation, and patient head fixation in a neutral 30° elevated position were completed in typical fashion. After the usual surgical preparation, a right frontal burr hole was made at Kocher’s point, and the dura

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Bifocal germ cell tumor of pineal germinoma and neurohypophyseal embryonal carcinoma: illustrative case

Yu Naruse, Shinya Jinguji, Ryo Hiruta, Ayako Toda, Kenichiro Nagai, Shingo Kudo, Hideki Sano, Rei Sekine, Osamu Suzuki, Mudathir Bakhit, and Masazumi Fujii

hormone; GH = growth hormone; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor–1; LH = luteinizing hormone; PRL = prolactin; TSH = thyroid stimulating hormone; T3 = triiodothyronine; T4 = thyroxine. Progress of Treatment Considering the imaging findings and tumor marker values, a diagnosis of GCT was suspected, leading to the decision to perform emergency procedures, including endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), tumor biopsy, and ventricular drainage. During the operation, gross examination of the neurohypophyseal and pineal tumors revealed contrasting characteristics