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Parantap Patel, Davis Taylor, and Min S. Park

final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: Park. Statistical analysis: Patel. References 1 Albrecht JS , O’Hara LM , Moser KA , Mullins CD , Rao V : Perception of barriers to the diagnosis and receipt of treatment for neuropsychiatric disturbances after traumatic brain injury . Arch Phys Med Rehabil 98 : 2548 – 2552 , 2017 2 Bell RS , Mossop CM , Dirks MS , Stephens FL , Mulligan L , Ecker R , : Early decompressive craniectomy for severe penetrating and closed head injury during wartime . Neurosurg Focus 28 ( 5

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Ashley D. Meagher, Christopher A. Beadles, Jennifer Doorey, and Anthony G. Charles

Surgery.s Current Affiliation Dr. Meagher: Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL. References 1 Alban RF , Berry C , Ley E , Mirocha J , Margulies DR , Tillou A , : Does health care insurance affect outcomes after traumatic brain injury? Analysis of the National Trauma Databank . Am Surg 76 : 1108 – 1111 , 2010 2 Betancourt JR , King RK : Unequal treatment: the Institute of Medicine report and its public health implications . Public Health Rep 118 : 287 – 292 , 2003 3 Chan L , Doctor J , Temkin N , MacLehose

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Thomas M. O’Lynnger, Chevis N. Shannon, Truc M. Le, Amber Greeno, Dai Chung, Fred S. Lamb, and John C. Wellons III

pre- and postprotocol discharge disposition, and 2) determine how Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores differed between the pre- and poststandardization cohorts. FIG. 1. Traumatic brain injury protocol. CVP = central venous pressure; EEG = electroencephalogram; ETCO2 = end-tidal CO 2 ; EVD = external ventricular drain; Hct = hematocrit; HOB = head of bed; MAP = mean arterial pressure; Na = sodium; NMB = neuromuscular blockade; NS = normal saline; NSGY = neurosurgery; pCO2 = partial pressure of CO 2 ; TP = transpyloric. Methods For this retrospective cohort study, we

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Inge A. van Erp, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Mohamad El Moheb, Haytham M. A. Kaafarani, Noelle Saillant, Ann-Christine Duhaime, and April E. Mendoza

A t present, traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of death across all age groups. 1 Because of the significant burden induced by this disease, close monitoring and timely interventions are necessary to avoid further complications. An important aspect of treatment is preventing life-threatening venous thromboembolic events through the administration of pharmacological prophylactic agents. 2 In fact, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-documented complication that is estimated to occur in up to 25% of adult patients with

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Aziz S. Alali, Nancy Temkin, Monica S. Vavilala, Abhijit V. Lele, Jason Barber, Sureyya Dikmen, and Randall M. Chesnut

, 200, 250, 300, and 350 mm Hg. We defined hypoxemia as any PaO 2 value of less than 60 mm Hg, as defined by the Brain Trauma Foundation “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury” 7 over the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure for this study was the GOSE score 38 at 6 months after injury. Secondary outcomes were the following neuropsychological outcome measures at 6 months after injury: Trail Making Test parts A and B, 2 , 7 , 28 the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, 3 the California Verbal

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Hon-Yi Shi, Shiuh-Lin Hwang, I-Chen Lee, I-Te Chen, King-Teh Lee, and Chih-Lung Lin

of TBI in the United States was approximately 200–558 per 100,000 people, and the estimated overall economic cost of TBI was US $406 billion. 7 , 13 , 25 In Taiwan, an estimated 52,000 TBIs occur annually, and up to 25% of them are fatal. 5 Traumatic brain injury can result in substantial and lifelong cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments that require long-term access to health care and disability services. 9 , 21 However, predicting the level of health care service utilization associated with TBI is difficult because of its widely varying rates and

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David C. Perry, Virginia E. Sturm, Matthew J. Peterson, Carl F. Pieper, Thomas Bullock, Bradley F. Boeve, Bruce L. Miller, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Mitchel S. Berger, Joel H. Kramer, and Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer

S ince the 1928 description of the “punch drunk” condition, 48 there has been speculation about a connection between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and late-life neurological or psychiatric illness. Though this syndrome was later referred to as “dementia pugilistica” because it was thought to uniquely affect boxers, 14 an accumulation of cases in recent years has suggested that repeated brain injury in other sports, such as football, soccer, and wrestling, might also predispose to neurodegenerative disease 52 and that nonsports-related TBI, such as that

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Dag Ferner Netteland, Magnus Mejlænder-Evjensvold, Nils O. Skaga, Else Charlotte Sandset, Mads Aarhus, and Eirik Helseth

E merging literature suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be an important etiology of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). 1 However, apart from multiple case reports and small case series, the literature on CVT in the setting of TBI is scarce. Pathophysiologically, thrombosis of cerebral dural venous sinuses leads to obstructed venous drainage, resulting in increased hydrostatic pressure in upstream veins and capillaries. 2 This in turn can lead to complications of CVT in the form of parenchymal edema, decreased arterial perfusion

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Michael F. Stiefel, Alejandro Spiotta, Vincent H. Gracias, Alicia M. Garuffe, Oscar Guillamondegui, Eileen Maloney-Wilensky, Stephanie Bloom, M. Sean Grady, and Peter D. LeRoux

well as therapy directed at brain O 2 can be associated with a reduced patient mortality rate after severe TBI. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the hard work performed by the nurses in the HUP neurosurgical ICU in caring for these patients as well as their help in data acquisition. References 1. Bardt TF , Unterberg AW , Hartl R , Kiening KL , Schneider GH , Lanksch WR : Monitoring of brain tissue PO2 in traumatic brain injury: effect of cerebral hypoxia on outcome. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 71

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Alejandro M. Spiotta, Michael F. Stiefel, Vicente H. Gracias, Alicia M. Garuffe, W. Andrew Kofke, Eileen Maloney-Wilensky, Andrea B. Troxel, Joshua M. Levine, and Peter D. Le Roux

, Kiening KL , Schneider GH , Lanksch WR : Monitoring of brain tissue PO2 in traumatic brain injury: effect of cerebral hypoxia on outcome . Acta Neurochir Suppl 71 : 153 – 156 , 1998 5 Bergsneider M , Hovda DA , Shalmon E , Kelly DF , Vespa PM , Martin NA , : Cerebral hyperglycolysis following severe traumatic brain injury in humans: a positron emission tomography study . J Neurosurg 86 : 241 – 251 , 1997 6 Birmingham K : Future of neuroprotective drugs in doubt . Nat Med 8 : 5 , 2002 7 Brain Trauma Foundation