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Third ventricle colloid cysts: a consecutive 12-year series

Tiit Mathiesen, Per Grane, Lars Lindgren, and Christer Lindquist

memory deficit, normalization within 1 week) was detected in six patients (26%; Cases 1, 7, 13, 14, 20, and 22). One patient (Case 1) had transient mutism for 1 week postsurgery. Postoperative transient memory deficit appeared to correlate with moderate surgical trauma to the ipsilateral fornix. Cyst removal required interforniceal dissection in Case 1. In six patients (Cases 5, 7, 13, 14, 20, and 22), the cysts were removed in toto through the foramen of Monro, thereby distending the ipsilateral fornix. A retractor was placed adjacent to the fornix, causing some

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Interhemispheric approach for the surgical removal of thalamocaudate arteriovenous malformations

Robert A. Solomon and Bennett M. Stein

was then followed laterally to the forceps major of the corpus callosum and inferiorly into the floor of the lateral ventricle at the location of the pulvinar and right fornix. The vascular supply from the choroidal vessels was secured and the entire malformation was rolled out on the medial venous pedicle and removed. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological deficits. Angiography and CT scanning ( Fig. 5 ) showed no evidence of residual AVM. Detailed psychometric testing done both pre- and postoperatively failed to demonstrate any change in language or

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Endoscopic approach to colloid cyst: what is the optimal entry point and trajectory?

Clinical article

Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Fangxiang Chen, Lawrence Choi, Justin C. Clark, and Peter Nakaji

follows. Identifying a good entry point and trajectory not only facilitates the procedure, but more importantly, it helps to avoid jeopardizing the key anatomical structures such as the caudate nucleus, deep cerebral veins, and the fornices. Intraoperative trauma to the fornix could result from pressing this structure or swinging the scope laterally or anteroposteriorly, either during the access to or removal of the lesion. The effect of such damage on memory can range from imperceptible to disabling. 7 These complications can be reduced by using an optimal entry point

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Experimental Hydrocephalus

Part 3: Light Microscopic Findings in Acute and Subacute Obstructive Hydrocephalus in the Monkey

Ronald G. Clark and Thomas H. Milhorat

colliculus of the midbrain will be discussed. The changes occurred more rapidly than expected and, therefore, will be grouped together with respect to time intervals following the induced obstruction. 1 Hour Flattening of the ependyma on the dorsal aspect of the septum pellucidum was already evident ( Fig. 1 ). Although no true synechiae were observed, protrusions and pendulous evaginations of the ventricular wall were frequently observed near the inferior angle of the frontal horn ( Fig. 2 ). The angle formed by the attachment of the fornix to the corpus callosum

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Reversibility of functionally injured neurotransmitter systems with shunt placement in hydrocephalic rats: implications for intellectual impairment in hydrocephalus

Yuzuru Tashiro and James M. Drake

and the medial part of the substantia nigra compacta (demarcated at the lateral end of the medial lemniscus) were similarly counted at the level of a section containing the fasciculus retroflexus and accessory optic tract. Counts in the different regions were subjected to analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Fig. 1. Drawings showing sections of counted cell numbers of ChAT-IR neurons in Ch1–Ch6 sectors. Ab = nucleus accumbens; AC = anterior commissure; Aq = aqueduct; DR = dorsal raphe; F = fornix; GP = globus pallidus

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Radical orbital decompression for severe dysthyroid exophthalmos

Joseph C. Maroon and John S. Kennerdell

floor of the orbit. In their most recent reports, they have described their good results in over 252 patients operated on with this technique. 17, 18 In 1966, Kroll and Castin 9 reported their palliative procedure for dysthyroid exophthalmos, which involved removal of the lateral orbital bone. In 1979, McCord and Moses 13 published their technique for exposure of the inferior orbit through a lateral canthotomy and fornix incision. They discovered that they were able to obtain excellent exposure of the inferior orbital wall as well as the medial wall through a

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The hypothalamus at the crossroads of psychopathology and neurosurgery

Daniel A. N. Barbosa, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Felipe Monte Santo, Ana Carolina de Oliveira Faria, Alessandra A. Gorgulho, and Antonio A. F. De Salles

run chiefly in the medial forebrain bundle, in the fornix, and in the ansa peduncularis. 39 , 50 , 51 , 69 In all vertebrate species, the hypothalamus is a paramedian division of the basal diencephalon that lies below the thalamus, where it makes up the floor and lateral walls of the third ventricle. 49 The complex anatomy of the hypothalamus is best represented by a combination of coronal, axial, and parasagittal sections alternatively stained for nerve fibers and cell bodies. 69 In a rostrocaudal direction ( Fig. 1 ), 3 major regions—preoptic (or chiasmal

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Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children: prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Richard Holubkov, Samuel R. Browd, D. Douglas Cochrane, James M. Drake, David D. Limbrick, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Tamara D. Simon, Mandeep S. Tamber, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, John R. W. Kestle, and for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

5 minutes to return to a clear working condition]), degree of forniceal injury visualized (defined as follows: could not be assessed; no visible injury with fornix pristine; small, punctate contusions or subpial hemorrhage(s) but ependyma intact; large confluent contusions or subpial hemorrhage but ependyma intact; small breach of ependyma overlying the fornix; or frank tear of the fornix), major arterial injury, venous injury, thalamic contusion, hypothalamic contusion, and whether concurrent biopsy was performed. Details of the creation of the third ventricle

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Endoscopic transventricular third ventriculostomy through the lamina terminalis

Technical note

Joachim M. K. Oertel, Sonja Vulcu, Henry W. S. Schroeder, Moritz A. Konerding, Wolfgang Wagner, and Michael R. Gaab

, the feasibility of an ETV from the third ventricle through the lamina terminalis was analyzed in 4 formalin-fixed human cadaveric heads. Particular reference was given to the preservation of the optic nerve and anterior cerebral arteries as well as the fornix at the level of the foramen of Monro. In the second part of the study, our endoscopic database was investigated for ETV procedures through the lamina terminalis via a transventricular approach. All of our intracranial endoscopic procedures have been collected in this database since January 1993. All patients

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Sudden intraaqueductal dislocation of a third ventricle ependymoma causing acute decompensation of hydrocephalus

Case report

Christian Rosenstengel, Jörg Baldauf, Jan-Uwe Müller, and Henry W. S. Schroeder

required only 1 bur hole located approximately 2 cm in front of the coronal suture, to access both the floor of the third ventricle and the posterior part of the third ventricle. On the MR images obtained prior to the surgery, we saw a large foramen of Monro, which allowed a tilting of the endoscope within the foramen to visualize the ventricle floor and entry of the aqueduct. Of course there is a risk of damaging sensitive structures such as ependymal veins or the fornix during this maneuver. However, with careful insertion and slow movements of the scope, the risk