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Spinal deformity surgery in patients for whom blood transfusion is not an option: a single-center experience

Alexander J. Schupper, Margit Kaufman, Jay S. Reidler, Marc S. Arginteanu, Frank M. Moore, Alfred Steinberger, Omar N. Syed, Kevin C. Yao, and Yakov Gologorsky

OBJECTIVE

Spinal deformity surgery is associated with significant blood loss, often requiring the transfusion of blood and/or blood products. For patients declining blood or blood products, even in the face of life-threatening blood loss, spinal deformity surgery has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. For these reasons, patients for whom blood transfusion is not an option have historically been denied spinal deformity surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected data set. All patients declining blood transfusion who underwent spinal deformity surgery at a single institution between January 2002 and September 2021 were identified. Demographics collected included age, sex, diagnosis, details of any prior surgery, and medical comorbidities. Perioperative variables included levels decompressed and instrumented, estimated blood loss, blood conservation techniques used, length of surgery, length of hospital stay, and complications from surgery. Radiographic measurements included, where appropriate, sagittal vertical axis correction, Cobb angle correction, and regional angular correction.

RESULTS

Spinal deformity surgery was performed in 31 patients (18 male, 13 female) over 37 admissions. The median age at surgery was 41.2 years (range 10.9–70.1 years), and 64.5% had significant medical comorbidities. A median of 9 levels (range 5–16 levels) were instrumented per surgery, and the median estimated blood loss was 800 mL (range 200–3000 mL). Posterior column osteotomies were performed in all surgeries, and pedicle subtraction osteotomies in 6 cases. Multiple blood conservation techniques were used in all patients. Preoperative erythropoietin was administered prior to 23 surgeries, intraoperative cell salvage was used in all, acute normovolemic hemodilution was performed in 20, and perioperative administration of antifibrinolytic agents was performed in 28 surgeries. No allogenic blood transfusions were administered. Surgery was staged intentionally in 5 cases, and there was 1 unintended staging due to intraoperative blood loss from a vascular injury. There was 1 readmission for a pulmonary embolus. There were 2 minor postoperative complications. The median length of stay was 6 days (range 3–28 days). Deformity correction and the goals of surgery were achieved in all patients. Two patients underwent revision surgery during the follow-up period: one for pseudarthrosis and the other for proximal junctional kyphosis.

CONCLUSIONS

With proper preoperative planning and judicious use of blood conservation techniques, spinal deformity surgery may be performed safely in patients for whom blood transfusion is not an option. The same techniques can be applied widely to the general population in order to minimize blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood transfusion.

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Interbody distraction and vertebral body reconstruction with polymethylmethacrylate for the treatment of pathological fractures

Scott L. Zuckerman, Ganesh Rao, Laurence D. Rhines, Ian E. McCutcheon, Richard G. Everson, and Claudio E. Tatsui

OBJECTIVE

Treatment of epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) caused by tumor includes surgical decompression and stabilization followed by postoperative radiation. In the case of severe axial loading impairment, anterior column reconstruction is indicated. The authors describe the use of interbody distraction to restore vertebral body height and correct kyphotic angulation prior to reconstruction with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and report the long-term durability of such reconstruction.

METHODS

A single institution, prospective series of patients with ESCC undergoing single-stage decompression, anterior column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation from 2013 to 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. Several demographic, perioperative, and radiographic measurements were collected. Descriptive statistics were compiled, in addition to postoperative changes in anterior height, posterior height, and kyphosis. Paired Student t-tests were performed for each variable. Overall survival was calculated using the techniques described by Kaplan and Meier.

RESULTS

Twenty-one patients underwent single-stage posterior decompression with interbody distraction and anterior column reconstruction using PMMA. The median age and Karnofsky Performance Scale score were 61 years and 70, respectively. Primary tumors included renal cell (n = 8), lung (n = 4), multiple myeloma (n = 2), prostate (n = 2), and other (n = 5). Eighteen patients underwent a single-level vertebral body reconstruction and 3 underwent multilevel transpedicular corpectomies. The median survival duration was 13.3 months. In the immediate postoperative setting, statistically significant improvement was noted in anterior body height (p = 0.0017, 95% confidence interval [CI] −4.15 to −1.11) and posterior body height (p = 0.0116, 95% CI −3.14 to −0.45) in all patients, and improved kyphosis was observed in those with oblique endplates (p = 0.0002, 95% CI 11.16–20.27). In the median follow-up duration of 13.9 months, the authors observed 3 cases of asymptomatic PMMA subsidence. One patient required reoperation in the form of extension of fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

In situ interbody distraction allows safe and durable reconstruction with PMMA, restores vertebral height, and corrects kyphotic deformities associated with severe pathological fractures caused by tumor. This is accomplished with minimal manipulation of the thecal sac and avoiding an extensive 360° surgical approach in patients who cannot tolerate extensive surgery.

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Risk factors for closure of lamina after open-door laminoplasty

Clinical article

Morio Matsumoto, Kota Watanabe, Takashi Tsuji, Ken Ishii, Hironari Takaishi, Masaya Nakamura, Yoshiaki Toyama, and Kazuhiro Chiba

Object

This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and clinical consequences of postoperative lamina closure after open-door laminoplasty and to identify the risk factors.

Methods

Eighty-two consecutive patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent open-door laminoplasty without plates or spacers in the open side (Hirabayashi's original method) were included (62 men and 20 women with a mean age of 62 years and a mean follow-up of 1.8 years). In 67 patients the cause of cervical myelopathy was spondylotic myelopathy, and in 15 it was caused by ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. Radiographic measurements were made of the anteroposterior diameters of the spinal canal and vertebral bodies from C3–6, and the presence of kyphosis were assessed. Lamina closure was defined as ≥ 10% decrease in the canal-to-body ratio at the final follow-up compared with that immediately after surgery at ≥ 1 vertebral level. The impact of lamina closure on neck pain, patient satisfaction, Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores, and recovery rates were also evaluated.

Results

The mean canal-to-body ratio at C3–6 was 0.69–0.72 preoperatively, 1.25–1.28 immediately after surgery, and 1.18–1.24 at the final follow-up examination. Lamina closure was observed in 34% of patients and was not associated with sex, age, or cause of myelopathy, but was significantly associated with the presence of preoperative kyphosis (p = 0.014). Between patients with and without lamina closure, there was no significant difference in preoperative (9.7 ± 3.1 vs 10.6 ± 2.5) and postoperative (13.7 ± 2.4 vs 13.1 ± 2.7) Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores, recovery rates (53.9 ± 29.9% vs 44.3 ± 29.5%), neck pain scores (3.5 ± 0.7 vs 3.3 ± 1.0), or patient satisfaction level (4.0 ± 1.4 vs 4.8 ± 1.0).

Conclusions

Lamina closure at ≥ 1 vertebral level occurred in 34% of patients. Although patients with lamina closure obtained equivalent recovery from myelopathy in a short-term follow-up, they tended to be less satisfied with surgery compared with those who did not have closure. The only significant risk factor identified was the presence of preoperative cervical kyphosis, and preventative methods for lamina closure, therefore, should be considered for patients with preoperative kyphosis.

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Radiographic and clinical outcomes following combined lateral lumbar interbody fusion and posterior segmental stabilization in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis

Zachary J. Tempel, Gurpreet S. Gandhoke, Christopher M. Bonfield, David O. Okonkwo, and Adam S. Kanter

Object

A hybrid approach of minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) followed by supplementary open posterior segmental instrumented fusion (PSIF) has shown promising early results in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis. Studies assessing the impact of this combined approach on correction of segmental and regional coronal angulation, sagittal realignment, maximum Cobb angle, restoration of lumbar lordosis, and clinical outcomes are needed. The authors report their results of this approach for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis.

Methods

Twenty-six patients underwent combined LLIF and PSIF in a staged fashion. The patient population consisted of 21 women and 5 men. Ages ranged from 40 to 77 years old. Radiographic measurements including coronal angulation, pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, and sagittal vertical axis were taken preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively in all patients. Concurrently, the visual analog score (VAS) for back and leg pain, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were used to assess clinical outcomes in 19 patients.

Results

At 1-year follow-up, all patients who underwent combined LLIF and PSIF achieved statistically significant mean improvement in regional coronal angles (from 14.9° to 5.8°, p < 0.01) and segmental coronal angulation at all operative levels (p < 0.01). The maximum Cobb angle was significantly reduced postoperatively (from 41.1° to 15.1°, p < 0.05) and was maintained at follow-up (12.0°, p < 0.05). The mean lumbar lordosis–pelvic incidence mismatch was significantly improved postoperatively (from 15.0° to 6.92°, p < 0.05). Although regional lumbar lordosis improved (from 43.0° to 48.8°), it failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). The mean sagittal vertical axis was significantly improved postoperatively (from 59.5 mm to 34.2 mm, p < 0.01). The following scores improved significantly after surgery: VAS for back pain (from 7.5 to 4.3, p < 0.01) and leg pain (from 5.8 to 3.1, p < 0.01), ODI (from 48 to 38, p < 0.01), and PCS (from 27.5 to 35.0, p = 0.01); the MCS score did not improve significantly (from 43.2 to 45.5, p = 0.37). There were 3 major and 10 minor complications.

Conclusions

A hybrid approach of minimally invasive LLIF and open PSIF is an effective means of achieving correction of both coronal and sagittal deformity, resulting in improvement of quality of life in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis.

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The endoscopic endonasal approach to the odontoid and its impact on early extubation and feeding

Tony Goldschlager, Roger Härtl, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECT

The gold-standard surgical approach to the odontoid is via the transoral route. This approach necessitates opening of the oropharynx and is associated with risks of infection, and swallowing and breathing complications. The endoscopic endonasal approach has the potential to reduce these complications as the oral cavity is avoided. There are fewer than 25 such cases reported to date. The authors present a consecutive, single-institution series of 9 patients who underwent the endonasal endoscopic approach to the odontoid.

METHODS

The charts of 9 patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic surgery to the odontoid between January 2005 and August 2013 were reviewed. The clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical management, complications, and outcome, particularly with respect to time to extubation and feeding, were analyzed. Radiographic measurements of the distance between the back of the odontoid and the front of the cervicomedullary junction (CMJ) were calculated, as well as the location of any residual bone fragments.

RESULTS

There were 7 adult and 2 pediatric patients in this series. The mean age of the adults was 54.8 years; the pediatric patients were 7 and 14 years. There were 5 females and 4 males. The mean follow-up was 42.9 months. Symptoms were resolved or improved in all but 1 patient, who had concurrent polyneuropathy. The distance between the odontoid and CMJ increased by 2.34 ± 0.43 mm (p = 0.03). A small, clinically insignificant fragment remained after surgery, always on the left side, in 57% of patients. Mean times to extubation and oral feeding were on postoperative Days 0.3 and 1, respectively. There was one posterior cervical wound infection; there were 2 cases of epistaxis requiring repacking of the nose and no instances of breathing or swallowing complications or velopharyngeal insufficiency.

CONCLUSIONS

This series of 9 cases of endonasal endoscopic odontoidectomy highlights the advantages of the approach in permitting early extubation and early feeding and minimizing complications compared with transoral surgery. Special attention must be given to bone on the left side of the odontoid if the surgeon is standing on the right side.

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Orbital reconstruction for tumor-associated proptosis: quantitative analysis of postoperative orbital volume and final eye position

Robert S. Heller, Carlos A. David, and Carl B. Heilman

OBJECTIVE

Surgical resection of sphenoid wing tumors and intraorbital pathology carries the dual goal of appropriately treating the target pathology as well as correcting proptosis. Residual proptosis following surgery can lead to cosmetic and functional disability. The authors sought to quantitatively assess the effect of orbital volume before and after reconstruction to determine the optimal strategy to achieve proptosis correction.

METHODS

All surgeries involving orbital wall reconstruction for orbital or intracranial pathology that preoperatively resulted in proptosis between 2007 and 2017 were reviewed. Proptosis was measured by the exophthalmos index (EI): the ratio of the distance of the anterior limit of each globe to a line drawn between the anterior limit of the frontal processes of the zygomas, comparing the pathological eye to the normal eye. Postoperative radiographic measurements were taken at least 60 days after surgery to allow surgical swelling to abate. The orbit contralateral to the pathology was used as an internal control for normal anatomical orbital volume. Cases with preoperative EI < 1.10, orbital exenteration, or enucleation were excluded.

RESULTS

Twenty-three patients (16 females and 7 males, with a mean age of 43.6 ± 22.8 years) were treated surgically for tumor-associated proptosis. Nineteen patients harbored meningiomas (11 en-plaque; 8 sphenoid wing), and one patient each harbored an orbital schwannoma, glomangioma, arteriovenous malformation, or cavernous hemangioma. Preoperative EI averaged 1.28 ± 0.10 (range 1.12–1.53). Median time to postoperative imaging was 19 months. Postoperatively, the EI decreased to a mean of 1.07 ± 0.09. Greater increases in size of the reconstructed orbit were positively correlated with greater quantitative reductions in proptosis (p < 0.01). Larger volume of soft tissue pathology was also associated with achieving greater proptosis correction (p < 0.01). Residual exophthalmos (defined as EI > 1.10) was present in 8 patients, while reconstruction in 2 patients resulted in clinically asymptomatic enophthalmos (defined as EI < 0.95). Tumor invasion into the superior orbital fissure sinus was associated with residual proptosis (p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

Proptosis associated with intracranial and orbital pathology represents a surgical challenge. The EI is a reliable and quantitative assessment of proptosis. For orbital reconstruction in cases of superior orbital fissure involvement, surgeons should consider rebuilding the orbit at slightly larger than anatomical volume.

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Computed tomography parameters for atlantooccipital dislocation in adult patients: the occipital condyle–C1 interval

Eduardo Martinez-del-Campo, Samuel Kalb, Hector Soriano-Baron, Jay D. Turner, Matthew T. Neal, Timothy Uschold, and Nicholas Theodore

OBJECT

Atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD) in adults cannot be diagnosed with adequate specificity and sensitivity using only CT or plain radiography, and the spine literature offers no guidelines. In children, the most sensitive and specific radiographic measurement for the diagnosis of AOD is the CT-based occipital condyle–C1 interval (CCI). The goal of the current study was to identify the normal CCI in healthy adults and compare it with the CCI in adults with AOD to establish a highly sensitive and specific cutoff value for the neuroimaging diagnosis of AOD.

METHODS

A total of 81 patients, 59 without AOD and 22 with AOD, were included in this study. Measurements obtained from thin-slice CT scans of the craniovertebral joint to assess atlantooccipital dislocation included the CCI, condylar sum, the Wholey and Harris intervals, Powers and Sun ratios, Wackenheim line, and Lee X-lines.

RESULTS

The group of patients without AOD included 30 men (50.8%) and 29 women (49.2%) with a mean age of 42.4 ± 16 years (range 19–87 years). The group of patients with AOD included 10 men (45.5%) and 12 women (54.5%) with a mean age of 38.2 ± 9.7 years (range 20–56 years). Interrater reliabilities within a 95% CI were all greater than 0.98 for CCI measurements. A total of 1296 measurements of the CCI were made in 81 patients. The mean CCI for non-AOD patients was 0.89 ± 0.12 mm, the single largest CCI measurement was 1.4 mm, and the largest mean for either right or left CCI was 1.2 mm. The mean condylar sum was 1.8 ± 0.2 mm, and the largest condylar sum value was 2.2 mm. Linear regression with age predicted an increase in CCI of 0.001 mm/year (p < 0.05). The mean CCI in AOD patients was 3.35 ± 0.18 mm (range 1.5 mm–6.4 mm). The shortest single CCI measurements in the AOD patients were 1.1 mm and 1.2 mm. The mean condylar sum for all 22 AOD patients was 6.7 ± 2.7 mm and the shortest condylar sums were 3.0 mm. Cutoff values for AOD were set at 1.5 mm for the CCI and 3.0 mm for the condylar sum, both with a sensitivity of 1 and false-negative rate of 0. Sensitivity for the Powers, Wholey, Harris, Sun, Wackenheim, and Lee criteria were determined to be 0.55, 0.46, 0.27, 0.23, 0.41, and 0.41, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The CCI is shorter in adult patients as opposed to the pediatric population. The revised CCI (1.5 mm) and condylar sum (3.0 mm) cutoff values have the highest sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of AOD in the adult population.

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Using lamina screws as a salvage technique at C-7: computed tomography and biomechanical analysis using cadaveric vertebrae

Laboratory investigation

Mario J. Cardoso, Anton E. Dmitriev, Melvin D. Helgeson, Frederick Stephens, Victoria Campbell, Ronald A. Lehman, Patrick Cooper, and Michael K. Rosner

Object

Transpedicular instrumentation at C-7 has been well accepted, but salvage techniques are limited. Lamina screws have been shown to be a biomechanically sound salvage technique in the proximal thoracic spine, but have not been evaluated in the lower cervical spine. The following study evaluates the anatomical feasibility of lamina screws at C-7 as well as their bone-screw interface strength as a salvage technique.

Methods

Nine fresh-frozen C-7 cadaveric specimens were scanned for bone mineral density using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Prior to testing, all specimens were imaged using CT to obtain 1-mm axial sections. Caliper measurements of both pedicle width and laminar thickness were obtained. On the right side, pedicle screws were first inserted and then pulled out. Salvage intralaminar screws were inserted into the left lamina from the right spinous process/lamina junction and then pulled out. All screws were placed by experienced cervical spine surgeons under direct fluoroscopic visualization. Pedicle and lamina screws were 4.35- and 3.5-mm in diameter, respectively. Screws sizes were chosen based on direct and radiographic measurements of the respective anatomical regions. Insertional torque (IT) was measured in pounds per inch. Tensile loading to failure was performed in-line with the screw axis at a rate of 0.25 mm/sec using a MiniBionix II system with data recorded in Newtons.

Results

Using lamina screws as a salvage technique generated mean pullout forces (778.9 ± 161.4 N) similar to that of the index pedicle screws (805.3 ± 261.7 N; p = 0.796). However, mean lamina screw peak IT (5.2 ± 2.0 lbs/in) was significantly lower than mean index pedicle screw peak IT (9.1 ± 3.6 lbs/in; p = 0.012). Bone mineral density was strongly correlated with pedicle screw pullout strength (r = 0.95) but less with lamina screw pullout strength (r = 0.04). The mean lamina width measured using calipers (5.7 ± 1.0 mm) was significantly different from the CTmeasured mean lamina width (5.1 ± 0.8 mm; p = 0.003). Similarly, the mean pedicle width recorded with calipers (6.6 ± 1.1 mm) was significantly different from the CT-measured mean pedicle width (6.2 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014). The mean laminar width measured on CT at the thinnest point ranged from 3.8 to 6.8 mm, allowing a 3.5-mm screw to be placed without difficulty.

Conclusions

These results suggest that using lamina screws as a salvage technique at C-7 provides similar fixation strength as the index pedicle screw. The C-7 lamina appears to have an ideal anatomical width for the insertion of 3.5-mm screws commonly used for cervical fusions. Therefore, if the transpedicular screw fails, using intralaminar screws appear to be a biomechanically sound salvage technique.

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Poor correlation between head circumference and cranial ultrasound findings in premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage

Clinical article

Martha-Conley E. Ingram, Anna L. Huguenard, Brandon A. Miller, and Joshua J. Chern

Object

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most common cause of hydrocephalus in the pediatric population and is particularly common in preterm infants. The decision to place a ventriculoperitoneal shunt or ventricular access device is based on physical examination findings and radiographic imaging. The authors undertook this study to determine if head circumference (HC) measurements correlated with the Evans ratio (ER) and if changes in ventricular size could be detected by HC measurements.

Methods

All cranial ultrasound (CUS) reports at the authors' institution between 2008 and 2011 were queried for terms related to hydrocephalus and IVH, from which a patient cohort was determined. A review of radiology reports, HC measurements, operative interventions, and significant clinical events was performed for each patient in the study. Additional radiographic measurements, such as an ER, were calculated by the authors. Significance was set at a statistical threshold of p < 0.05 for this study.

Results

One hundred forty-four patients were studied, of which 45 (31%) underwent CSF diversion. The mean gestational age and birth weight did not differ between patients who did and those who did not undergo CSF diversion. The CSF diversion procedures were reserved almost entirely for patients with IVH categorized as Grade III or IV. Both initial ER and HC were significantly larger for patients who underwent CSF diversion. The average ER and HC at presentation were 0.59 and 28.2 cm, respectively, for patients undergoing CSF diversion, and 0.34 and 25.2 cm for those who did not undergo CSF diversion. There was poor correlation between ER and HC measurements regardless of gestational age (r = 0.13). Additionally, increasing HC was not found to correlate with increasing ERs on consecutive CUSs (φ = −0.01, p = 0.90). Patients who underwent CSF diversion after being followed with multiple CUSs (10 of 45 patients) presented with smaller ERs and HC than those who underwent CSF diversion after a single CUS. Just prior to CSF diversion surgery, the patients who received multiple CUSs had ERs, but not HC measurements, that were similar to those in patients who underwent CSF diversion after a single CUS.

Conclusions

The HC measurement does not correlate with the ER or with changes in ER and therefore does not appear to be an adequate surrogate for serial CUSs. In patients who are followed for longer periods of time before CSF shunting procedures, the ER may play a larger role in the decision to proceed with surgery. Clinicians should be aware that the ER and HC are not surrogates for one another and may reflect different pathological processes. Future studies that take into account other physical examination findings and long-term clinical outcomes will aid in developing standardized protocols for evaluating preterm infants for ventriculoperitoneal shunt or ventricular access device placement.

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Predictors for cervical kyphotic deformity following laminoplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Samuel D. Pettersson, Paulina Skrzypkowska, Shan Ali, Tomasz Szmuda, Michał Krakowiak, Tadej Počivavšek, Fanny Sunesson, Justyna Fercho, and Grzegorz Miękisiak

OBJECTIVE

Laminoplasty is a common treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). However, approximately 21% of patients undergoing laminoplasty develop cervical kyphotic deformity (KD). Because of the high prevalence rate of KD, several studies have sought to identify predictors for this complication, but the findings remain highly inconsistent. Therefore, the authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish reliable preoperative predictors of KD.

METHODS

PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were used to systematically extract potential references. The first phase of screening required the studies to be written in the English language, involve patients treated for CSM and/or OPLL via laminoplasty, and report postoperative cervical KD. The second phase required the studies to provide more than 10 patients and include a control group. The mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR) were calculated for continuous and dichotomous parameters. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. CSM and OPLL patients were further assessed by performing subgroup analyses.

RESULTS

Thirteen studies comprising patients who developed cervical KD (n = 296) and no KD (n = 1254) after receiving cervical laminoplasty for CSM or OPLL were included in the meta-analysis. All studies were retrospective cohorts and were rated as high quality. In the combined univariate analysis of CSM and OPLL patients undergoing laminoplasty, statistically significant predictors for postoperative KD included age (MD 2.22, 95% CI 0.16–4.27, p = 0.03), preoperative BMI (MD 0.85, 95% CI 0.06–1.63, p = 0.04), preoperative C2–7 range of flexion (MD 10.42, 95% Cl 4.24–16.59, p = 0.0009), preoperative C2–7 range of extension (MD −4.59, 95% CI −6.34 to −2.83, p < 0.00001), and preoperative center of gravity of the head to the C7 sagittal vertical axis (MD 26.83, 95% CI 9.13–44.52, p = 0.003). Additionally, among CSM patients, males were identified as having a greater risk for postoperative KD (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.02–2.93, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

The findings from this study currently provide the largest and most reliable review on preoperative predictors for cervical KD after laminoplasty. Given that several of the included studies identified optimal cutoff points for the variables that are significantly associated with KD, further investigation into the development of a preoperative risk scoring system that can accurately predict KD in the clinical setting is encouraged.

PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42022299795 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/).