in 6 formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric heads injected with colored silicone. Approaches above the tentorium include the superior parietal lobule , posterior interhemispheric transprecuneus, posterior interhemispheric transcallosal, and posterior interhemispheric transtentorial approaches. The visible neural and vascular structures related to the reachable parts of the pulvinar were examined in all approaches with the surgical microscope and rigid endoscope. In the study, the pulvinar is divided into 2 parts: ventricular and cisternal, separated by the fornix
Microsurgical and endoscopic approaches to the pulvinar
Osamu Akiyama, Ken Matsushima, Abuzer Gungor, Satoshi Matsuo, Dylan J. Goodrich, R. Shane Tubbs, Paul Klimo Jr., Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Hajime Arai, and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.
Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of disorders of consciousness and cognition in traumatic brain injury patients: a review
Bornali Kundu, Andrea A. Brock, Dario J. Englot, Christopher R. Butson, and John D. Rolston
rodents resulted in improved performance on memory tasks as well as increased activation in the dentate gyrus, a connection node of the central thalamus. 66 DBS Targets to Modulate Cognition in Patients Although only one study to date, discussed below, directly addressed changes in memory function in TBI patients, DBS data from other patient populations point to alternative targets, including the pedunculopontine nucleus 13 and the fornix, 39 , 47 , 51 that may modulate memory function in humans. Mixed behavioral results have been seen with stimulation of the
Technical strategies for the transcallosal transforaminal approach to third ventricle tumors: expanding the operative corridor
Prayash Patel, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Frederick Boop, and Paul Klimo Jr.
through the use of fixed retractors. A small section of choroid plexus just posterior to the venous angle and foramen is coagulated ( Fig. 3A ). The anterior septal vein is coagulated and sharply cut just above the venous angle, allowing gentle medial retraction of the ipsilateral fornix and lateral displacement of the thalamostriate vein ( Fig. 3B ). A nonabrasive cottonoid is placed over the exposed fornix and gentle traction is applied to the cottonoid rather than directly to the fornix. There is typically a small section of ependyma lying under the choroid plexus
The white matter tracts of the cerebrum in ventricular surgery and hydrocephalus
Abuzer Güngör, Serhat Baydin, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Necmettin Tanriover, Cihan Isler, and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.
foramen of Monro. The frontal horn is positioned deep to the pars triangularis and pars opercularis on the cortical surface and to the middle and posterior short gyri on the insular surface. 84 , 98 The body lies deep to the inferior part of the precentral and postcentral gyri on the cortical surface and the superior part of the posterior short gyrus, and to the anterior and posterior long gyri on the insular surface ( Figs. 1A , 1B , and 6A ). 84 , 98 The atrium and occipital horn, located posterior to the junction of the corpus callosum and fornix , are
Lateral ventricle subependymoma resected with a transcallosal approach: illustrative case
Franco Rubino, Michael P. Catalino, Romulo A. Andrade de Almeida, and Sujit S. Prabhu
characteristics of the tumor infiltrating the ependyma over the basal ganglia or fornix and the continuous use of brain retractors to reach the lateral ventricle. 7 , 8 Conversely, the highest rates of severe postoperative complications have been reported in subependymomas located in the posterior fossa. 6 , 9 In this report, we present the case of a 65-year-old male with a subependymoma located in the left lateral ventricle. The tumor was completely resected using an interhemispheric transcallosal approach. Illustrative Case History and Presentation A 65-year
Effect of Neuregen nutrient medium on survival of cortical neurons after aspiration lesion in rats
Gregory J. Brewer, Jose A. Espinosa, and Robert G. Struble
nutrient support. 4 Neuregen-I is similar to Hibernate, with the addition of DHEAS and human albumin 3 in place of bovine albumin. These changes may be useful to protect against degeneration in poorly perfused brain lesions. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that providing nutrients in vivo that promote regeneration of neurons in culture is superior to irrigation with saline for minimizing neurodegeneration in a model brain lesion consisting of cortical aspiration and transection of the rat fimbria—fornix area. 17 This model was chosen for the following features
Surgical anatomy of the proximal anterior cerebral artery
Ralph O. Dunker and A. Basil Harris
) (small crosshatched area) in every instance when this vessel was present. The locus of penetration (large crosshatched area) of these vessels was the septal and paraolfactory region. A constant contribution to the optic chiasmal (OC) arterial plexus was also noted. As depicted in Fig. 8 , the communicating artery branches perfused the septum pellucidum, corpus callosum, columns of the fornix, lamina terminalis, and to a lesser extent the most mesial paraolfactory structures and most anterior hypothalamus. In the early perfusions, ligation of the anterior
Endoscopic corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy
Sandeep Sood, Neena I. Marupudi, Eishi Asano, Abilash Haridas, and Steven D. Ham
corpus callosum, as the commissure of the fornix is split in the midline, the appearance of choroid plexus marks the opening of the foramen of Monro. Anteriorly, the anterior commissure is visualized and can be cut with the bipolar or CUSA. Any bleeding can be easily controlled with the bipolar. FIG. 2. Operative images of endoscopic corpus callosotomy. Panels 1–5 represent the views along the corresponding trajectories in panel 8, the sagittal CT scan; letters a-f in panels 1–5 correspond to the same letters in panel 8; panels 6 and 7 show fornix
Anatomical landmarks for hemispherotomy and their clinical application
Hung Tzu Wen, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., and Raul Marino Jr.
central core of each hemisphere consists of the basal ganglia; thalamus; internal, external, and extreme capsules; claustrum; and insula. Externally, it is covered by the insula and surrounded by the fornix and lateral ventricles ( Fig. 1 ). Anteriorly, the central core connects to the frontal lobe by the very anterior portion of the internal capsule, which separates the bottom of the anterior limiting sulcus of the insula (in the sylvian fissure) from the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle, in front of the head of the caudate nucleus. Furthermore, the core connects
Failure to treat obstructive hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a patient with neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Amir Kershenovich, Angela V. Price, Korgun Koral, Stan Goldman, and Dale M. Swift
sampling of the thickened infundibular recess ependyma and right fornix column, which had abnormal anatomical conformation ( Fig. 2 ). F ig . 2. Intraoperative endoscopic view of the right lateral ventricle. From right to left : thalamostriate vein, foramen of Monro, choroid plexus, and septal vein. Note the abnormal nodular tissue at the fornix column, between 9 and 12 o'clock in the foramen of Monro. First Postoperative Course The biopsy sample appeared to be a yellow to grayish semi-translucent tissue. After filtering and sectioning, the specimen