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Factors associated with preoperative and postoperative seizures in patients undergoing resection of brain metastases

Joseph H. Garcia, Ramin A. Morshed, Jason Chung, Miguel A. Millares Chavez, Vivek Sudhakar, Satvir Saggi, Lauro N. Avalos, Aaron Gallagher, Jacob S. Young, Mariza Daras, Michael W. McDermott, Paul A. Garcia, Edward F. Chang, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Epileptic seizures are a common and potentially devastating complication of metastatic brain tumors. Although tumor-related seizures have been described in previous case series, most studies have focused on primary brain tumors and have not differentiated between different types of cerebral metastases. The authors analyzed a large surgical cohort of patients with brain metastases to examine risk factors associated with preoperative and postoperative seizures and to better understand the seizure risk factors of metastatic brain tumors.

METHODS

Patients who underwent resection of a brain metastasis at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included in the study were ≥ 18 years of age, required resection of a brain metastasis, and were treated at UCSF. Primary cancers included melanoma, non–small cell lung adenocarcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Patients were evaluated for primary cancer type and seizure occurrence, as well as need for use of antiepileptic drugs preoperatively, at time of discharge, and at 6 months postoperatively. Additionally, Engel classification scores were assigned to those patients who initially presented with seizures preoperatively. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association of tumor type with preoperative seizures.

RESULTS

Data were retrospectively analyzed for 348 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment of brain metastases between 1998 and 2019. The cohort had a mean age of 60 years at the time of surgery and was 59% female. The mean and median follow-up durations after the date of surgery for the cohort were 22 months and 10.8 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, frontal lobe location (p = 0.05), melanoma (p = 0.02), KRAS mutation in lung carcinoma (p = 0.04), intratumoral hemorrhage (p = 0.04), and prior radiotherapy (p = 0.04) were associated with seizure presentation. Postoperative checkpoint inhibitor use (p = 0.002), prior radiotherapy (p = 0.05), older age (p = 0.002), distant CNS progression (p = 0.004), and parietal lobe tumor location (p = 0.002) were associated with seizures at 6 months postoperatively. The final multivariate model confirmed the independent effects of tumor location in the frontal lobe and presence of intratumoral hemorrhage as predictors of preoperative seizures, and checkpoint inhibitor use and parietal lobe location were identified as significant predictors of seizures at 6 months postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

Within this surgical cohort of patients with brain metastases, seizures were seen in almost a quarter of patients preoperatively. Frontal lobe metastases and hemorrhagic tumors were associated with higher risk of preoperative seizures, whereas checkpoint inhibitor use and parietal lobe tumors appeared to be associated with seizures at 6 months postoperatively. Future research should focus on the effect of metastatic lesion–targeting therapeutic interventions on seizure control in these patients.

Free access

Supervised machine learning algorithms demonstrate proliferation index correlates with long-term recurrence after complete resection of WHO grade I meningioma

Minh P. Nguyen, Ramin A. Morshed, Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Daniel D. Cummins, Satvir Saggi, William C. Chen, Abrar Choudhury, Akshay Ravi, David R. Raleigh, Stephen T. Magill, Michael W. McDermott, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, and resection is a mainstay of treatment. It is unclear what duration of imaging follow-up is reasonable for WHO grade I meningiomas undergoing complete resection. This study examined recurrence rates, timing of recurrence, and risk factors for recurrence in patients undergoing a complete resection (as defined by both postoperative MRI and intraoperative impression) of WHO grade I meningiomas.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective, single-center study examining recurrence risk for adult patients with a single intracranial meningioma that underwent complete resection. Uni- and multivariate nominal logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify variables associated with recurrence and time to recurrence. Two supervised machine learning algorithms were then implemented to confirm factors within the cohort that were associated with recurrence.

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 823 patients who met inclusion criteria, and 56 patients (6.8%) had recurrence on imaging follow-up. The median age of the cohort was 56 years, and 77.4% of patients were female. The median duration of head imaging follow-up for the entire cohort was 2.7 years, but for the subgroup of patients who had a recurrence, the median follow-up was 10.1 years. Estimated 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year recurrence-free survival rates were 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98.8%–99.9%), 91.0% (95% CI 87.7%–93.6%), 83.6% (95% CI 78.6%–87.6%), and 77.3% (95% CI 69.7%–83.4%), respectively, for the entire cohort. On multivariate analysis, MIB-1 index (odds ratio [OR] per 1% increase: 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.58, p = 0.0003) and follow-up duration (OR per year: 1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.21, p = 0.012) were both associated with recurrence. Gradient-boosted decision tree and random forest analyses both identified MIB-1 index as the main factor associated with recurrence, aside from length of imaging follow-up. For tumors with an MIB-1 index < 8, recurrences were documented up to 8 years after surgery. For tumors with an MIB-1 index ≥ 8, recurrences were documented up to 12 years following surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Long-term imaging follow-up is important even after a complete resection of a meningioma. Higher MIB-1 labeling index is associated with greater risk of recurrence. Imaging screening for at least 8 years in patients with an MIB-1 index < 8 and at least 12 years for those with an MIB-1 index ≥ 8 may be needed to detect long-term recurrences.

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Genomic alterations associated with postoperative nodular leptomeningeal disease after resection of brain metastases

Ramin A. Morshed, Daniel D. Cummins, Minh P. Nguyen, Satvir Saggi, Harish N. Vasudevan, Steve E. Braunstein, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Mariza Daras, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

The relationship between brain metastasis resection and risk of nodular leptomeningeal disease (nLMD) is unclear. This study examined genomic alterations found in brain metastases with the aim of identifying alterations associated with postoperative nLMD in the context of clinical and treatment factors.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on patients who underwent resection of brain metastases between 2014 and 2022 and had clinical and genomic data available. Postoperative nLMD was the primary endpoint of interest. Targeted next-generation sequencing of > 500 oncogenes was performed in brain metastases. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify clinical features and genomic alterations associated with nLMD.

RESULTS

The cohort comprised 101 patients with tumors originating from multiple cancer types. There were 15 patients with nLMD (14.9% of the cohort) with a median time from surgery to nLMD diagnosis of 8.2 months. Two supervised machine learning algorithms consistently identified CDKN2A/B codeletion and ERBB2 amplification as the top predictors associated with postoperative nLMD across all cancer types. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis including clinical factors and genomic alterations observed in the cohort, tumor volume (× 10 cm3; HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.5; p = 0.04), CDKN2A/B codeletion (HR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7–16.9; p = 0.004), and ERBB2 amplification (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1–14.4; p = 0.04) were associated with a decreased time to postoperative nLMD.

CONCLUSIONS

In addition to increased resected tumor volume, ERBB2 amplification and CDKN2A/B deletion were independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative nLMD across multiple cancer types. Additional work is needed to determine if targeted therapy decreases this risk in the postoperative setting.

Free access

Identification of risk factors associated with leptomeningeal disease after resection of brain metastases

Ramin A. Morshed, Satvir Saggi, Daniel D. Cummins, Annette M. Molinaro, Jacob S. Young, Jennifer A. Viner, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Lauren Boreta, Steve E. Braunstein, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Manish K. Aghi, and Mariza Daras

OBJECTIVE

Resection of brain metastases (BMs) may be associated with increased risk of leptomeningeal disease (LMD). This study examined rates and predictors of LMD, including imaging subtypes, in patients who underwent resection of a BM followed by postoperative radiation.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center study was conducted examining overall LMD, classic LMD (cLMD), and nodular LMD (nLMD) risk. Logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards, and random forest analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with LMD.

RESULTS

Of the 217 patients in the cohort, 47 (21.7%) developed postoperative LMD, with 19 cases (8.8%) of cLMD and 28 cases (12.9%) of nLMD. Six-, 12-, and 24-month LMD-free survival rates were 92.3%, 85.6%, and 71.4%, respectively. Patients with cLMD had worse survival outcomes from the date of LMD diagnosis compared with nLMD (median 2.4 vs 6.9 months, p = 0.02, log-rank test). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified cerebellar/insular/occipital location (hazard ratio [HR] 3.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73–6.11, p = 0.0003), absence of extracranial disease (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27–4.88, p = 0.008), and ventricle contact (HR 2.82, 95% CI 1.5–5.3, p = 0.001) to be associated with postoperative LMD. A predictive model using random forest analysis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 in a test cohort identified tumor location, systemic disease status, and tumor volume as the most important factors associated with LMD.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor location, absence of extracranial disease at the time of surgery, ventricle contact, and increased tumor volume were associated with LMD. Further work is needed to determine whether escalating therapies in patients at risk of LMD prevents disease dissemination.