Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for :

  • Author or Editor: K. Daniel Riew x
  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

A comparison of simulator-tested and -retrieved cervical disc prostheses

Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004

Paul A. Anderson, Jeffrey P. Rouleau, Jeffrey M. Toth, and K. Daniel Riew

Object. Total joint arthroplasties most commonly fail because the implant becomes worn and a host inflammatory response subsequently develops. Both the material response to the biological environment and the host response to the device must be thoroughly evaluated to establish the efficacy of cervical arthroplasty. Analyses of devices explanted in humans allow evaluation of both responses. Hypothetical wear rates can be determined by comparing in vivo wear with simulator-derived wear. The purpose of this study was to perform explant analyses involving the Bryan and Prestige discs and compare these results with those obtained using spine simulators.

Methods. Of the approximately 5500 patients treated with the Bryan disc, 11 have undergone explantation of the device. Six of these devices were analyzed for dimensional and chemical changes. Three of the approximately 300 implanted Prestige discs were retrieved, and two were examined microscopically. Histological specimens were assessed for wear particles and host inflammatory response. Additionally, the extent of simulator-produced wear was compared with that demonstrated in the retrieved specimens.

Conclusions. The simulator-generated results predict adequate wear-related characteristics for both the Bryan and Prestige prostheses for a minimum of 40 years. Comparison of data with those of the retrieved specimens indicates that the wear was more minimal than predicted in simulators by five- to 10-fold. In no instance did the revisions result from failure of the device due to a reaction to wear debris, fracture, polymer oxidation, or metal corrosion. The inflammatory response seen in the periprosthetic tissues was minimal and not characteristic of inflammatory responses in failed diarthrodial joint arthroplasties.

Restricted access

Less exposure surgery for multilevel anterior cervical fusion using 2 transverse incisions

Technical note

Kingsley R. Chin, Eric T. Ricchetti, Warren D. Yu, and K. Daniel Riew

Multilevel anterior cervical fusion often necessitates a large extensile incision for exposure and substantial retraction of the esophagus for placing long plates, potentially predisposing patients to complications such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and neurovascular injury. To the authors' knowledge, the use of 2 incisions as an option has not been published, and so it is not intuitive to young surgeons or widely practiced. In this report, the authors discuss the advantages and raise awareness of using 2 incisions for multilevel anterior cervical fusion, and they document a safe skin bridge length. They also describe the advantages of using 2 incisions for performing multilevel anterior cervical fusion either at contiguous or noncontiguous levels as in adjacent-segment disease. By using the 2-incision technique, the authors made the surgery technically easier and diminished the amount of esophageal retraction otherwise needed through 1 long transverse or longitudinal incision. A skin bridge of 3 cm was safe.

Restricted access

Preoperative opioid strength may not affect outcomes of anterior cervical procedures: a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective, randomized trials

Michael P. Kelly, Paul A. Anderson, Rick C. Sasso, and K. Daniel Riew

OBJECT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative opioid strength and outcomes of anterior cervical decompressive surgery.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort of 1004 patients enrolled in 1 of 2 investigational device exemption studies comparing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease causing radiculopathy or myelopathy was selected. At a preoperative visit, opioid use data, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and numeric rating scale scores for neck and arm pain were collected. Patients were divided into strong (oxycodone/morphine/meperidine), weak (codeine/propoxyphene/hydrocodone), and opioid-naïve groups. Preoperative and postoperative (24 months) outcomes scores were compared within and between groups using the paired t-test and ANCOVA, respectively.

RESULTS

Patients were categorized as follows: 226 strong, 762 weak, and 16 opioid naïve. The strong and weak groups were similar with respect to age, sex, race, marital status, education level, Worker’s Compensation status, litigation status, and alcohol use. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in arm or neck pain scores (arm: strong −52.3, weak −50.6, naïve −54.0, p = 0.244; neck: strong −52.7, weak −50.8, naïve −44.6, p = 0.355); NDI scores (strong −36.0, weak −33.3, naïve −32.3, p = 0.181); or SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores (strong: 14.1, weak 13.3, naïve 21.7, p = 0.317) were present. Using a 15-point improvement in NDI to determine success, the authors found no between-groups difference in success rates (strong 80.6%, weak 82.7%, naïve 73.3%, p = 0.134). No difference existed between treatment arms (TDA vs ACDF) for any outcome at any time point.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative opioid strength did not adversely affect outcomes in this analysis. Careful patient selection can yield good results in this patient population.

Restricted access

Effect of hyperglycemia on apoptosis of notochordal cells and intervertebral disc degeneration in diabetic rats

Laboratory investigation

Ho-Yeon Won, Jong-Beom Park, Eun-Young Park, and K. Daniel Riew

Object

Diabetes mellitus is thought to be an important etiologic factor in intervertebral disc degeneration. It is known that notochordal cells gradually disappear from the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc with age by undergoing apoptosis. What is not known is whether diabetes has an effect on apoptotic rates of notochordal cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on apoptosis of notochordal cells and intervertebral disc degeneration in age-matched OLETF (diabetic) and LETO (control) rats.

Methods

Lumbar disc tissue (L1–2 through L5–6), including cranial and caudal cartilaginous endplates, was obtained from 6- and 12-month-old OLETF and LETO rats (40 rats, 10 in each of the 4 groups). The authors examined the NP using TUNEL, histological analysis, and Western blot for expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)–1, -2, -3, and -13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)–1 and -2, and Fas (apoptosis-related protein). The apoptosis index of notochordal cells was calculated. The degree of transition of notochordal NP to fibrocartilaginous NP was classified on a scale ranging from Grade 0 (no transition) to Grade 4 (transition > 75%). The degree of expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13, TIMP-1 and -2, and Fas was evaluated by densitometry.

Results

At 6 and 12 months of age, OLETF rats showed increased body weight and abnormal 2-hour glucose tolerance tests compared with LETO rats. The apoptosis index of notochordal cells was significantly higher in the OLETF rats than in the LETO rats at both 6 and 12 months of age. The degree of transition of notochordal NP to fibrocartilaginous NP was significantly higher in the OLETF rats than in the LETO rats at 6 and 12 months of age. The expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13, TIMP-1, and Fas was higher in the OLETF rats at 6 and 12 months of age. The expression of TIMP-2 was significantly higher in the OLETF rats than in the LETO rats at 6 months of age, but not at 12.

Conclusions

The findings suggest that diabetes is associated with premature, excessive apoptosis of NP notochordal cells. This results in an accelerated transition of a notochordal NP to a fibrocartilaginous NP, which leads to early intervertebral disc degeneration. It remains to be determined if these premature changes are due to hyperglycemia or some other factors associated with diabetes. Understanding the mechanism by which diabetes affects disc degeneration is the first step in designing therapeutic modalities to delay or prevent disc degeneration caused by diabetes mellitus.

Full access

Does index level sagittal alignment determine adjacent level disc height loss?

Ryan Snowden, Justin Miller, Tome Saidon, Joseph D. Smucker, K. Daniel Riew, and Rick Sasso

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to compare the effect of index level sagittal alignment on cephalad radiographic adjacent segment pathology (RASP) in patients undergoing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected radiographic data from 79 patients who underwent TDA or ACDF and were enrolled and followed prospectively at two centers in a multicenter FDA investigational device exemption trial of the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis used for arthroplasty. Neutral lateral radiographs were obtained pre- and postoperatively and at 1, 2, 4, and up to 7 years following surgery. The index level Cobb angle was measured both pre- and postoperatively. Cephalad disc degeneration was determined by a previously described measurement of the disc height/anteroposterior (AP) distance ratio.

RESULTS

Sixty-eight patients (n = 33 ACDF; n = 35 TDA) had complete radiographs and were included for analysis. Preoperatively, there was no difference in the index level Cobb angle between the ACDF and TDA patients. Postoperatively, the ACDF patients had a larger segment lordosis compared to the TDA patients (p = 0.002). Patients who had a postoperative kyphotic Cobb angle were more likely to have undergone TDA (p = 0.01). A significant decrease in the disc height/AP distance ratio occurred over time (p = 0.035), by an average of 0.01818 at 84 months. However, this decrease was not influenced by preoperative alignment, postoperative alignment, or type of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort of patients undergoing TDA and ACDF, the authors found that preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment have no effect on RASP at follow-up of at least 7 years. They identified time as the only significant factor affecting RASP.

Restricted access

Economic value of treating lumbar disc herniation in Brazil

Asdrubal Falavigna, Nicolas Scheverin, Orlando Righesso, Alisson R. Teles, Maria Carolina Gullo, Joseph S. Cheng, and K. Daniel Riew

OBJECT

Lumbar discectomy is one of the most common surgical spine procedures. In order to understand the value of this surgical care, it is important to understand the costs to the health care system and patient for good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate for the first time the cost-effectiveness of spine surgery in Latin America for lumbar discectomy in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for patients in Brazil.

METHODS

The authors performed a prospective cohort study involving 143 consecutive patients who underwent open discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Patient-reported outcomes were assessed utilizing the SF-6D, which is derived from a 12-month variation of the SF-36. Direct medical costs included medical reimbursement, costs of hospital care, and overall resource consumption. Disability losses were considered indirect costs. A 4-year horizon with 3% discounting was applied to health-utilities estimates. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying utility gain by 20%. The costs were expressed in Reais (R$) and US dollars ($), applying an exchange rate of 2.4:1 (the rate at the time of manuscript preparation).

RESULTS

The direct and indirect costs of open lumbar discectomy were estimated at an average of R$3426.72 ($1427.80) and R$2027.67 ($844.86), respectively. The mean total cost of treatment was estimated at R$5454.40 ($2272.66) (SD R$2709.17 [$1128.82]). The SF-6D utility gain was 0.044 (95% CI 0.03197–0.05923, p = 0.017) at 12 months. The 4-year discounted QALY gain was 0.176928. The estimated cost-utility ratio was R$30,828.35 ($12,845.14) per QALY gained. The sensitivity analysis showed a range of R$25,690.29 ($10,714.28) to R$38,535.44 ($16,056.43) per QALY gained.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of open lumbar discectomy to treat LDH is associated with a significant improvement in patient outcomes as measured by the SF-6D. Open lumbar discectomy performed in the Brazilian supplementary health care system provides a cost-utility ratio of R$30,828.35 ($12,845.14) per QALY. The value of acceptable cost-effectiveness will vary by country and region.

Restricted access

A new technique for reduction of atlantoaxial subluxation using a simple tool during posterior segmental screw fixation

Clinical article

Bo-Gun Suh, Mary Ruth A. Padua, K. Daniel Riew, Ho-Joong Kim, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, and Jin S. Yeom

Object

The authors introduce a simple technique and tool to facilitate reduction of atlantoaxial subluxation during posterior segmental screw fixation.

Methods

Two types of reduction tool have been designed: T-type and L-type. A T-shaped levering tool was used when a pedicle or pars screw was used for C-2, and an L-shaped tool was used when a laminar screw was used for C-2. Twenty-two patients who underwent atlantoaxial segmental screw fixation and fusion for the treatment of anteroposterior instability or subluxation, using either of these new types of reduction tool, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data, which had been prospectively collected in a database, were analyzed. The atlantodens interval was measured on lateral radiographs, and the space available for the spinal cord was measured on CT scans.

Results

The authors could attain reduction of the atlantoaxial subluxation without difficulty using either type of tool. The preoperative atlantodens interval ranged from −16.9 to 10.9 mm in a neutral position, and the postoperative interval ranged from −2.8 to 3.0 mm, with negative values due to extension-type or mixed-type instability. The mean space available for the spinal cord significantly increased, from 9.5 mm preoperatively to 15.4 mm postoperatively (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

This technique allowed for controlled manipulation and reduction of the atlantoaxial subluxation without difficulty.

Restricted access

Indirect decompression for a prior severe C1–2 dislocation causing progressive quadriparesis

Case report

Kyeong Hwan Kim, Dong Bong Lee, Ho-Joong Kim, K. Daniel Riew, Boo Seop Kim, Bong-Soon Chang, Choon-Ki Lee, and Jin S. Yeom

Combined anterior and posterior surgery is frequently chosen for the treatment of prior, severe C1–2 dislocations that occurred during early childhood because of the difficulty in achieving reduction and satisfactory decompression. The authors treated a prior, severe C1–2 dislocation that was causing progressive quadriparesis. The patient was a 14-year-old boy who had suffered a C1–2 fracture-dislocation at 3 years of age and had been treated with a Minerva body jacket cast. The treatment involved posterior C1–2 segmental screw fixation, without direct bone decompression or additional surgery. Satisfactory neural decompression was achieved with the techniques used, and complete bone union was confirmed. The patient showed satisfactory neurological recovery at the 5-year follow-up assessment.

Restricted access

Letter to the Editor: Reduction of atlantoaxial subluxation

Peng-Yuan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, and Henrich Cheng

Free access

Predictors of neurologic outcome after surgery for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament differ based on myelopathy severity: a multicenter study

Jun Jae Shin, Hyeongseok Jeon, Jong Joo Lee, Hyung Cheol Kim, Tae Woo Kim, Sung Bae An, Dong Ah Shin, Seong Yi, Keung-Nyun Kim, Do-Heum Yoon, Narihito Nagoshi, Kota Watanabe, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Nan Li, Sai Ma, Da He, Wei Tian, Kenny Yat Hong Kwan, Kenneth Man Chee Cheung, K. Daniel Riew, Daniel J. Hoh, Yoon Ha, and the Asia Pacific Spine Study Group (APSSG)

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this retrospective multicenter study was to compare prognostic factors for neurological recovery in patients undergoing surgery for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) based on their presenting mild, moderate, or severe myelopathy.

METHODS

The study included 372 consecutive patients with OPLL who underwent surgery for cervical myelopathy between 2006 and 2016 in East Asian countries with a high OPLL prevalence. Baseline and postoperative clinical outcomes were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) myelopathy score and recovery ratio. Radiographic assessment included occupying ratio, cervical range of motion, and sagittal alignment parameters. Patient myelopathy was classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the preoperative JOA score. Linear and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify patient and surgical factors associated with neurological recovery stratified by baseline myelopathy severity.

RESULTS

The mean follow-up period was 45.4 months (range 25–140 months). The mean preoperative and postoperative JOA scores and recovery ratios for the total cohort were 11.7 ± 3.0, 14.5 ± 2.7, and 55.2% ± 39.3%, respectively. In patients with mild myelopathy, only age and diabetes correlated with recovery. In patients with moderate to severe myelopathy, older age and preoperative increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging were significantly correlated with a lower likelihood of recovery, while female sex and anterior decompression with fusion (ADF) were associated with better recovery.

CONCLUSIONS

Various patient and surgical factors are correlated with likelihood of neurological recovery after surgical treatment for cervical OPLL, depending on the severity of presenting myelopathy. Older age, male sex, intramedullary high signal intensity, and posterior decompression are associated with less myelopathy improvement in patients with worse baseline function. Therefore, myelopathy-specific preoperative counseling regarding prognosis for postoperative long-term neurological improvement should include consideration of these individual and surgical factors.