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Complete endoscopic removal of colloid cysts: issues of safety and efficacy

Charles Teo

The ideal management of colloid cysts is controversial. Treatment options include shunting procedures, stereotactic cyst aspiration, open craniotomy for microsurgical removal, and endoscopic removal. Although recent literature would suggest endoscopic removal is a reasonable approach, issues of safety and efficacy have dampened the universal acceptance of this surgical modality. The author performed a retrospective anaylsis to address these controversial issues.

The charts of all patients in whom endoscopic removal of colloid cysts was performed by the primary author at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences were reviewed. Eighteen patients underwent this procedure over the last 5 years. The mean patient age was 32 years, and the mean follow-up period was 32 months. In all patients complete tumor removal was macroscopically and radiologically confirmed, and there were no permanent deficits. Two patients suffered aseptic meningitis without long-term sequelae. There were no deaths and no incidence of tumor recurrence.

The results of this series support those previously published that underscore the advantages of endoscopic removal of colloid cysts. The procedure is safe and effective. Longer follow-up review is required to address the issue of duration of tumor-free survival.

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Editorial: Pineal cyst resection

Abhaya V. Kulkarni

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Keyhole retrosigmoid approach for large vestibular schwannomas: strategies to improve outcomes

Reid Hoshide, Harrison Faulkner, Mario Teo, and Charles Teo


There are numerous treatment strategies in the management for large vestibular schwannomas, including resection only, staged resections, resections followed by radiosurgery, and radiosurgery only. Recent evidence has pointed toward maximal resection as being the optimum strategy to prevent tumor recurrence; however, durable tumor control through aggressive resection has been shown to occur at the expense of facial nerve function and to risk other approach-related complications. Through a retrospective analysis of their single-institution series of keyhole neurosurgical approaches for large vestibular schwannomas, the authors aim to report and justify key techniques to maximize tumor resection and reduce surgical morbidity.


A retrospective chart review was performed at the Centre for Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery. All patients who had undergone a keyhole retrosigmoid approach for the resection of large vestibular schwannomas, defined as having a tumor diameter of ≥ 3.0 cm, were included in this review. Patient demographics, preoperative cranial nerve status, perioperative data, and postoperative follow-up were obtained. A review of the literature for resections of large vestibular schwannomas was also performed. The authors’ institutional data were compared with the historical data from the literature.


Between 2004 and 2017, 45 patients met the inclusion criteria for this retrospective chart review. When compared with findings in a historical cohort in the literature, the authors’ minimally invasive, keyhole retrosigmoid technique for the resection of large vestibular schwannomas achieved higher rates of gross-total or near-total resection (100% vs 83%). Moreover, these results compare favorably with the literature in facial nerve preservation (House-Brackmann I–II) at follow-up after gross-total resections (81% vs 47%, p < 0.001) and near-total resections (88% vs 75%, p = 0.028). There were no approach-related complications in this series.


It is the experience of the senior author that complete or near-complete resection of large vestibular schwannomas can be successfully achieved via a keyhole approach. In this series of 45 large vestibular schwannomas, a greater extent of resection was achieved while demonstrating high rates of facial nerve preservation and low approach-related and postoperative complications compared with the literature.

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Insular gliomas and tractographic visualization of the connectome

Nicholas B. Dadario, Charles Teo, and Michael E. Sughrue

In this video, the authors present a connectome-guided surgical resection of an insular glioma in a 39-year-old woman. Preoperative study with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)–based tractography revealed the surrounding brain connectome architecture around the tumor relevant for safe surgical resection. Connectomic information provided detailed maps of the surrounding language and salience networks, including eloquent white matter fibers and cortical regions, which were visualized intraoperatively with image guidance and artificial intelligence (AI)–based brain mapping software. Microsurgical dissection is presented with detailed discussion of the safe boundaries and angles of resection when entering the insular operculum defined by connectomic information.

The video can be found here:

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Endoscopic management of hydrocephalus secondary to tumors of the posterior third ventricle

Charles Teo and Ronald Young II

Management of the obstructive hydrocephalus that accompanies tumors located in the third ventricle has traditionally involved either urgent tumor resection, with resultant ventricular decompression, or cerebrospinal fluid diversion that requires either ventriculostomy or shunt placement prior to tumor removal. Although this approach has worked well for the better part of a century, it has both short- and long-term sequelae that can possibly be avoided. Beacause a number of lesions in this area are benign or are amenable to radiotherapy, a less invasive approach to their treatment is desirable. The advances in both instrumentation and techniques of endoscopic surgery have established alternatives to the traditional treatment of third ventricular tumors and resultant hydrocephalus. The authors review the treatment of 19 patients with posterior third ventricular tumors who presented to Arkansas Children's Hospital over a 5-year period (September 1993–July 1999). In 11 patients signs and/or symptoms of hydrocephalus were demonstrated and were treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy, additionally, a biopsy procedure, resection, or fenestration of the tumor was performed in a number of patients. Endoscopy was believed to have been of benefit in all patients, despite the eventual failure of the ventriculostomy in one patient. There were no complications in this series. The algorithm thus developed by the authors provides both a diagnostic and therapeutic pathway that may ultimately reduce the morbidity associated with the treatment of patients with posterior third ventricular lesions.

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Spontaneous third ventriculocisternostomy in an infant with obstructive hydrocephalus

Case report

Gary L. Gallia and Charles Teo

✓Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy, the spontaneous communication between the ventricular system and the subarachnoid space, is rare. The authors report a case of an infant with obstructive hydrocephalus who developed a spontaneous third ventriculocisternostomy. The infant was initially evaluated for progressive ventriculomegaly and increasing head circumference (HC). During follow-up, the patient's HC began to follow percentile lines and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a reduction of the hydrocephalus. Flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR images revealed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the floor of the third ventricle between the tuber cinereum and the mammillary bodies connecting the ventricular system with the prepontine cistern. Although rare, clinicians should be cognizant of this phenomenon as it may eliminate the need for CSF diversion.

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Endoscopic supraorbital eyebrow approach for the surgical treatment of extraaxialand intraaxial tumors

Roberto Gazzeri, Yuya Nishiyama, Ph.D., and Charles Teo


The supraorbital eyebrow approach is a minimally invasive technique that offers wide access to the anterior skull base region and parasellar area through asubfrontal corridor. The use of neuroendoscopy allows one to extend the approach further to the pituitary fossa, the anterior third ventricle, the interpeduncular cistern, the anterior and medial temporal lobe, and the middle fossa. The supraorbital approach involves a limited skin incision, with minimal soft-tissue dissection and a small craniotomy, thus carrying relatively low approach-related morbidity.


All consecutive patients who underwent the endoscopic supraorbital eyebrow approach were retrospectively analyzed for lesion location, pathology, length of stay, complications, and cosmetic results.


During a 56-month period, 97 patients (mean age 58.5 years) underwent an endoscopic eyebrow approach to resect extra- and intraaxial brain lesions. The most common pathologies treated were meningiomas (n = 41); craniopharyngiomas (n = 22); dermoid tumors (n = 7); metastases (n = 4); gliomas (n = 3); and other miscellaneous frontal, parasellar, and midbrain (n = 23) lesions. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 2.7 days (range 1–8 days). In 82 patients a total removal of the lesion was performed, while in 15 patients a near-total or subtotal removal was achieved. There were no postoperative hematomas, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, or severe neurological deficits, with the exception of 2 cases of visual deterioration and 1 case each of meningitis, stroke, and third cranial nerve paresis. Other complications directly related to the approach included 2 cases of skin burn as a direct result of heat transmission from the microscope light, 1 case of right frontal palsy, 2 cases of frontal numbness, and 1 case of bone remodeling 1 year after surgery.


The endoscopic supraorbital eyebrow approach is a safe and effective minimally invasive approach to remove extra- and intraaxial anterior skull base, parasellar, and frontal lesions, promoting a rapid recovery and short hospital stay. The location of the eyebrow incision demands a meticulous cosmetic closure, but, with proper technique, cosmetic results are excellent.

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Outcome analysis of 85 patients undergoing the pi procedure for correction of sagittal synostosis

Frederick A. Boop, William M. Chadduck, Kristopher Shewmake, and Charles Teo

✓ The authors present a retrospective review of their experience with 85 cases using the pi procedure to correct sagittal synostosis. A male preponderance of four to one was recognized in this group. Sixty-five infants underwent computerized tomography scanning of the head prior to surgery; these scans revealed unexpected intracranial pathology in 5% of cases. Surgical complications included three intraoperative dural lacerations. All children received blood transfusions with no complications.

Cosmetic outcomes were excellent in 53%, good in 43%, and poor in 4% of cases. One patient required reoperation. All poor outcomes were in infants who were younger than 8 weeks of age at the time of surgery and who underwent a “reverse pi” procedure. Most of the excellent outcomes occurred in infants who were between 3 and 6 months of age at the time of surgery.

Although more extensive than strip craniectomy, the pi procedure can be accomplished with minimal morbidity. In the authors' opinion, the pi procedure provides better immediate and long-term cosmetic results than synostectomy alone.

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The supraorbital eyebrow approach in children: clinical outcomes, cosmetic results, and complications

Brian J. Dlouhy, Michael P. Chae, and Charles Teo


The supraorbital eyebrow approach utilizes an eyebrow skin incision to fashion a supraorbital craniotomy for exposure of the subfrontal corridor. This provides anterolateral access to surgical lesions in the anterior cranial fossa, parasellar regions, brainstem, and medial temporal lobe. With use of the endoscope, further areas can be accessed. This approach has been applied effectively in adults, but questions remain about its use in children—specifically with regard to adequate working space, effectiveness for achieving the desired results, cosmesis, and complications.


The authors conducted a retrospective review of more than 450 cases involving patients of all ages who had undergone a supraorbital eyebrow approach performed by the senior author (C.T.) from 1995 to 2013. Only cases involving patients younger than 18 years with a minimum follow-up of 6 weeks were included in this study. All inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed and clinical/operative outcomes, cosmetic results, and complications were recorded. In the present article, the authors briefly describe the surgical approach and highlight any differences in applying it in children.


Fifty-four pediatric patients who had undergone a supraorbital eyebrow approach met inclusion criteria. The pathological conditions consisted mostly of tumors or other resectable lesions. In a total of 51 resectable lesions, 44 surgeries resulted in a gross-total (100%) resection and 7 cases resulted in subtotal (50%–99%) resection. The endoscope assisted and expanded visualization or provided access to areas not reached by standard microscopic visualization in all cases. Cosmetic outcomes were excellent. In all cases, the incisional scar was barely visible at 6 weeks. In 3 cases a minor bone defect was observed on the forehead. Given the small size of the frontal sinus in children, no frontal sinus breaches occurred. Additionally, no CSF leak or wound infection was identified.


The supraorbital eyebrow approach is extremely effective in achieving desired results in properly selected cases in patients of all pediatric age ranges, from infants to teenagers. There is sufficient working space for the endoscope and all instruments, allowing for endoscopic assistance and bimanual surgical technique. Cosmetic results are excellent, and complications related to the approach are minimal.

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Aggressive repeat surgery for focally recurrent primary glioblastoma: outcomes and theoretical framework

Michael E. Sughrue, Tyson Sheean, Phillip A. Bonney, Adrian J. Maurer, and Charles Teo


The relative benefit of repeat surgery for recurrent glioblastoma is unclear, in part due to the very heterogeneous nature of the patient population and the effect of clinician philosophy on the duration and aggressiveness of treatment. The authors sought to investigate the role of time to last recurrence on patient outcomes following aggressive repeat surgery for recurrent glioblastoma.


The authors present outcomes in 104 patients undergoing repeat surgery for focally recurrent glioblastoma with at least 95% resection and adjuvant treatment at most recent prior surgery. In addition to common variables, they provide data regarding the period of progression-free survival (PFS) following an aggressive lesionectomy for focally recurrent primary glioblastoma (T2) and the time the tumor took to recur since the previous surgery (T1). They term the ratio T1/T2 the relative aggressivity index (RAI).


The median PFS was 7.8 months, 6.0 months, and 4.8 months following the second, third, and fourth–sixth craniotomies, respectively. Importantly, there was a wide range of outcomes, with time to postoperative recurrence ranging from 1 to 24 months in this group. Analysis showed no meaningful relationship between T1 and T2, meaning that previous PFS is entirely unable to predict the PFS that another surgery will provide the patient.


Repeat surgery for glioblastoma is beneficial in many cases, however this is hard to predict preoperatively. Often, surgery can provide the patient with a good period of disease freedom, but this is variable and in general it is not possible to reliably predict who these patients are.