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Visual outcome after surgery in patients with suprasellar tumors and preoperative blindness

Ashish Suri, Karanjit Singh Narang, Bhawani Shankar Sharma, and Ashok Kumar Mahapatra

Object

The purpose of this paper was to study the visual outcome after surgery in patients with suprasellar tumors who experienced preoperative blindness in 1 or both eyes.

Methods

All patients with suprasellar tumors and no perception of light in 1 or both eyes and who underwent surgery between May 2002 and May 2006 were included in this retrospective study. Outcome was analyzed at discharge from the hospital and at follow-up. There were a total of 79 patients (51 males and 28 females, age range 5–70 years). There were 37 cases of pituitary adenomas, 19 craniopharyngiomas, 18 meningiomas, and 5 other tumors. Preoperatively 61 patients had uniocular blindness and 18 patients had binocular blindness. Of all 158 eyes, 97 (61.4%) were blind at admission and these eyes were analyzed. Sixty-three patients (79.7%) presented with headache and 14 (17.7%) with hypothalamic symptoms. Nearly one fourth (24%) of patients with a pituitary adenoma had a history of apoplexy. The duration of visual decline ranged from 3 days to 7 years, and the duration of blindness ranged from 1 day to 3 years. Patients underwent either transcranial or transsphenoidal tumor decompression.

Results

At discharge from the hospital visual improvement was exhibited in 23 (29%) of 79 patients and 27 (27.8%) of 97 eyes. Improvement to serviceable vision occurred in 7 (8.9%) of 79 patients and in 8 (8.2%) of 97 eyes with pre-operative blindness. After surgery, visual improvement was noted in 15 (24.6%) of 61 patients with uniocular blindness and 8 (44.4%) of 18 patients with binocular blindness. However, serviceable vision was restored in 5 (8.2%) of 61 patients with uniocular and 2 (11.1%) of 18 patients with binocular blindness. Bivariate analysis revealed male sex, shorter duration of blindness, presence of apoplexy, sellar tumor extension, soft tumor consistency, operative evidence of hemorrhage in tumor, and tumor histopathology (pituitary adenoma) to have significant impact on the outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed duration of blindness for > 12 weeks, apoplexy, and sellar extension to have a significant impact on visual outcome.

Conclusions

The present study is the largest in the existing medical literature to evaluate the factors affecting visual outcome after surgery of suprasellar tumors with preoperative blindness.

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Insular gliomas and lenticulostriate artery position

Manish Kumar Kasliwal and Ashish Suri

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Letter to the Editor: Joining the masters: the Dolenc-Kawase approach

Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Manoel J. Teixeira, Robert F. Spetzler, and Mark C. Preul

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Letter to the Editor: Neurosurgery skills training laboratories and curriculum: a supplement to Halstedian practice

Ashish Suri and Manjul Tripathi

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Dose-dependent facilitation of peripheral nerve regeneration by bone marrow–derived mononuclear cells: a randomized controlled study

Laboratory investigation

Amol Raheja, Vaishali Suri, Ashish Suri, Chitra Sarkar, Arti Srivastava, Sujata Mohanty, Krishan G. Jain, Meher C. Sharma, Hruda N. Mallick, Pradeep K. Yadav, Mani Kalaivani, and Ravindra M. Pandey

Object

Bone marrow–derived stem cells enhance the rate of regeneration of neuronal cells leading to clinical improvement in nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain infarction. Recent experiments in the local application of bone marrow–derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) in models of sciatic nerve transection in rats have suggested their beneficial role in nerve regeneration, although the effects of variable doses of stem cells on peripheral nerve regeneration have never been specifically evaluated in the literature. In this paper, the authors evaluated the dose-dependent role of BM-MNCs in peripheral nerve regeneration in a model of sciatic nerve transection in rats.

Methods

The right sciatic nerve of 60 adult female Wistar rats (randomized into 2 test groups and 1 control group, 20 rats in each group) underwent transection under an operating microscope. The cut ends of the nerve were approximated using 2 epineural microsutures. The gap was filled with low-dose (5 million BM-MNCs/100 μl phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) rat BM-MNCs in one group, high-dose (10 million BM-MNCs/100 μl PBS) rat BM-MNCs in another group, and only PBS in the control group, and the approximated nerve ends were sealed using fibrin glue. Histological assessment was performed after 30 days by using semiquantitative and morphometric analyses and was done to assess axonal regeneration, percentage of myelinated fibers, axonal diameter, fiber diameter, and myelin thickness at distal-most sites (10 mm from site of repair), intermediate distal sites (5 mm distal to the repair site), and site of repair.

Results

The recovery of nerve cell architecture after nerve anastomosis was far better in the high-dose BM-MNC group than in the low-dose BM-MNC and control groups, and it was most evident (p < 0.02 in the majority of the parameters [3 of 4]) at the distal-most site. Overall, the improvement in myelin thickness was most significant with incremental dosage of BM-MNCs, and was evident at the repair, intermediate distal, and distal-most sites (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

This study emphasizes the role of BM-MNCs, which can be isolated easily from bone marrow aspirates, in peripheral nerve injury and highlights their dose-dependent facilitation of nerve regeneration.

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Neurosurgery residency match for international medical graduates in the United States

Anudeep Yekula, Sattwik Sreeram, Sanjay Dhawan, Mayur Sharma, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Jared D. Huling, Ashish Suri, Kumar Belani, Michael C. Park, Bob S. Carter, and Clark C. Chen

OBJECTIVE

Training of international medical graduates (IMGs) offers opportunities for the US neurosurgery community to engage the global talent pool and impact national and international healthcare. Here, the authors analyzed the time trend of IMGs matching into US neurosurgery programs and identified potential opportunities for enhancing IMG engagement.

METHODS

The authors analyzed the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) match results, NRMP program director (PD) surveys, and applicant surveys from 2013 to 2022. Regression methods were used to analyze time trends.

RESULTS

Between 2013 and 2022, the number of US neurosurgery residency positions increased by 17.6% (from 204 to 240). During this period, the percentage of IMGs matching into neurosurgery increased from 3.5% to 7%, translating into a 6.8% increase in the likelihood of a successful IMG match per year (95% CI 0.3%–13.8%, p = 0.042). The likelihoods of a successful match for US MDs and IMGs scoring > 260 on the USMLE Step 1 were > 90% and approximately 55%, respectively. In PD surveys, approximately 90% of PDs indicated that they seldom/never interview or rank IMGs. In terms of factors that influenced the PD decision for interviewing/ranking, IMGs are disadvantaged in several categories, including the ability to secure an audition elective/rotation, and proper letters of recommendation, as well as the influence of the culture on the preconceived perception of poor interpersonal skills.

CONCLUSIONS

The number of IMGs matching successfully in neurosurgery has increased marginally during the past decade. The authors outline the challenges that IMGs encounter in this process and suggest strategies for considerations of IMG training in NRMP-associated institutions.

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Quantitative analysis of the Kawase versus the modified Dolenc-Kawase approach for middle cranial fossa lesions with variable anteroposterior extension

Manjul Tripathi, Rama Chandra Deo, Ashish Suri, Vinkle Srivastav, Britty Baby, Subodh Kumar, Prem Kalra, Subhashis Banerjee, Sanjiva Prasad, Kolin Paul, Tara Sankar Roy, and Sanjeev Lalwani

OBJECT

The surgical corridor to the upper third of the clivus and ventral brainstem is hindered by critical neurovascular structures, such as the cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and tentorium. The traditional Kawase approach provides a 10 × 5–mm fenestration at the petrous apex of the temporal bone between the 5th cranial nerve and internal auditory canal. Due to interindividual variability, sometimes this area proves to be insufficient as a corridor to the posterior cranial fossa. The authors describe a modification to the technique of the extradural anterior petrosectomy consisting of additional transcavernous exploration and medial mobilization of the cisternal component of the trigeminal nerve. This approach is termed the modified Dolenc-Kawase (MDK) approach.

METHODS

The authors describe a volumetric analysis of temporal bones with 3D laser scanning of dry and drilled bones for respective triangles and rhomboid areas, and they compare the difference of exposure with traditional versus modified approaches on cadaver dissection. Twelve dry temporal bones were laser scanned, and mesh-based volumetric analysis was done followed by drilling of the Kawase triangle and MDK rhomboid. Five cadaveric heads were drilled on alternate sides with both approaches for evaluation of the area exposed, surgical freedom, and angle of approach.

RESULTS

The MDK approach provides an approximately 1.5 times larger area and 2.0 times greater volume of bone at the anterior petrous apex compared with the Kawase’s approach. Cadaver dissection objectified the technical feasibility of the MDK approach, providing nearly 1.5–2 times larger fenestration with improved view and angulation to the posterior cranial fossa. Practical application in 6 patients with different lesions proves clinical applicability of the MDK approach.

CONCLUSIONS

The larger fenestration at the petrous apex achieved with the MDK approach provides greater surgical freedom at the Dorello canal, gasserian ganglion, and prepontine area and better anteroposterior angulation than the traditional Kawase approach. Additional anterior clinoidectomy and transcavernous exposure helps in dealing with basilar artery aneurysms.