Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Alexandre Roux x
  • Journal of Neurosurgery x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Management of hydrocephalus in pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors: the role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy

Christian Sainte-Rose, Giuseppe Cinalli, Franck E. Roux, Wirginia Maixner, Paul D. Chumas, Maher Mansour, Alexandre Carpentier, Marie Bourgeois, Michel Zerah, Alain Pierre-Kahn, and Dominique Renier

Object. The authors undertook a study to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of hydrocephalus before and after surgical intervention for posterior fossa tumors in children.

Methods. Between October 1, 1993, and December 31, 1997, a total of 206 consecutive children with posterior fossa tumors underwent surgery at Hôpital Necker—Enfants Malades in Paris. Excluded were 10 patients in whom shunts had been placed at the referring hospital. The medical records and neuroimaging studies of the remaining 196 patients were reviewed and categorized into three groups: Group A, 67 patients with hydrocephalus present on admission in whom endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed prior to tumor removal; Group B, 82 patients with hydrocephalus who did not undergo preliminary third ventriculostomy but instead received conventional treatment; and Group C, 47 patients in whom no ventricular dilation was present on admission.

There were no significant differences between patients in Group A or B with respect to the following variables: age at presentation, evidence of metastatic disease, extent of tumor resection, or follow-up duration. In patients in Group A, however, more severe hydrocephalus was demonstrated (p < 0.01); the patients in Group C were in this respect different from those in the other two groups.

Ultimately, there were only four patients (6%) in Group A compared with 22 patients (26.8%) in Group B (p = 0.001) in whom progressive hydrocephalus required treatment following removal of the posterior fossa tumor. Sixteen patients (20%) in Group B underwent insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, which is similar to the incidence reported in the literature and significantly different from that demonstrated in Group A (p < 0.016). The other six patients (7.3%) were treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy after tumor resection. In Group C, two patients (4.3%) with postoperative hydrocephalus underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

In three patients who required placement of CSF shunts several episodes of shunt malfunction occurred that were ultimately managed by endoscopic third ventriculostomy and definitive removal of the shunt. There were no deaths; however, there were four cases of transient morbidity associated with third ventriculostomy.

Conclusions. Third ventriculostomy is feasible even in the presence of posterior fossa tumors (including brainstem tumors). When performed prior to posterior fossa surgery, it significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative hydrocephalus. The procedure provides a valid alternative to placement of a permanent shunt in cases in which hydrocephalus develops following posterior fossa surgery, and it may negate the need for the shunt in cases in which the shunt malfunctions. Furthermore, in patients in whom CSF has caused spread of the tumor at presentation, third ventriculostomy allows chemotherapy to be undertaken prior to tumor excision by controlling hydrocephalus.

Although the authors acknowledge that the routine application of third ventriculostomy in selected patients results in a proportion of patients undergoing an “unnecessary” procedure, they believe that because patients' postoperative courses are less complicated and because the incidence of morbidity is low and the success rate is high in those patients with severe hydrocephalus that further investigation of this protocol is warranted.

Restricted access

Use of MR signal intensity variations to highlight structures at risk along brain biopsy trajectories

Marc Zanello, Clément Debacker, Alessandro Moiraghi, Sophie Peeters, Alexandre Roux, Louise Deboeuf, Eduardo Parraga, Edouard Dezamis, Fabrice Chrétien, Catherine Oppenheim, and Johan Pallud

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative intracerebral hemorrhages are significant complications following brain stereotactic biopsy. They can derive from anatomical structure (sulci, vessels) damage that is missed during stereotactic trajectory planning. In this study, the authors investigated the ability to detect contact between structures at risk and stereotactic trajectories using signal analysis from MRI obtained during clinical practice, with the aim to propose a visual tool to highlight areas with anatomical structures at risk of damage along the biopsy trajectory.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed actual stereotactic trajectories using intraoperative imaging (intraoperative 2D radiographs in the exploratory data set and intraoperative 3D scans in the confirmatory data set). The MR signal variation along each biopsy trajectory was matched with the patient’s anatomy.

RESULTS

In the exploratory data set (n = 154 patients), 32 contacts between the actual biopsy trajectory and an anatomical structure at risk were identified along 28 (18.2%) biopsy trajectories, corresponding to 8 preventable intracerebral hemorrhages. Variations of the mean derivative of the MR signal intensity were significantly different between trajectories with and without contact (the pathological threshold of the mean derivative of the MR signal intensity was defined as ± 0.030 arbitrary units; p < 0.0001), with a sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 74.6% to detect a contact. In the confirmatory data set (n = 73 patients), the sensitivity and specificity of the 0.030 threshold to detect a contact between the actual stereotactic trajectory and an anatomical structure at risk were 81.3% and 68.4%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Variations of the mean derivative of the MR signal intensity can be converted into a green/red color code along the planned biopsy trajectory to highlight anatomical structures at risk, which can help neurosurgeons during the surgical planning of stereotactic procedures.

Free access

Predictors of early postoperative epileptic seizures after awake surgery in supratentorial diffuse gliomas

Marc Zanello, Alexandre Roux, Gilles Zah-Bi, Bénédicte Trancart, Eduardo Parraga, Myriam Edjlali, Arnault Tauziede-Espariat, Xavier Sauvageon, Tarek Sharshar, Catherine Oppenheim, Pascale Varlet, Edouard Dezamis, and Johan Pallud

OBJECTIVE

Functional-based resection under awake conditions had been associated with a nonnegligible rate of intraoperative and postoperative epileptic seizures. The authors assessed the incidence of intraoperative and early postoperative epileptic seizures after functional-based resection under awake conditions.

METHODS

The authors prospectively assessed intraoperative and postoperative seizures (within 1 month) together with clinical, imaging, surgical, histopathological, and follow-up data for 202 consecutive diffuse glioma adult patients who underwent a functional-based resection under awake conditions.

RESULTS

Intraoperative seizures occurred in 3.5% of patients during cortical stimulation; all resolved without any procedure being discontinued. No predictor of intraoperative seizures was identified. Early postoperative seizures occurred in 7.9% of patients at a mean of 5.1 ± 2.9 days. They increased the duration of hospital stay (p = 0.018), did not impact the 6-month (median 95 vs 100, p = 0.740) or the 2-year (median 100 vs 100, p = 0.243) postoperative Karnofsky Performance Status score and did not impact the 6-month (100% vs 91.4%, p = 0.252) or the 2-year (91.7 vs 89.4%, p = 0.857) postoperative seizure control. The time to treatment of at least 3 months (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.76 [95% CI 1.38–16.36], p = 0.013), frontal lobe involvement (aOR 4.88 [95% CI 1.25–19.03], p = 0.023), current intensity for intraoperative mapping of at least 3 mA (aOR 4.11 [95% CI 1.17–14.49], p = 0.028), and supratotal resection (aOR 6.24 [95% CI 1.43–27.29], p = 0.015) were independently associated with early postoperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

Functional-based resection under awake conditions can be safely performed with a very low rate of intraoperative and early postoperative seizures and good 6-month and 2-year postoperative seizure outcomes. Intraoperatively, the use of the lowest current threshold producing reproducible responses is mandatory to reduce seizure occurrence intraoperatively and in the early postoperative period.