Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 88 items for

  • Author or Editor: Cormac O. Maher x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Griffin R. Baum, Nathan C. Rowland, Joshua J. Chern, and Andrew Reisner

Restricted access

Wajd N. Al-Holou, Thomas M. O'Lynnger, Aditya S. Pandey, Joseph J. Gemmete, B. Gregory Thompson, Karin M. Muraszko, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Cormac O. Maher

Object

This study was undertaken to define the age-related prevalence of cavernous malformations (CMs) in children and young adults undergoing intracranial imaging. In addition, the authors aim to clarify the natural history of CMs in young people, especially in those with incidentally discovered lesions.

Methods

To identify those patients with CMs, the authors retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 14,936 consecutive patients 25 years of age or younger who had undergone brain MR imaging. In patients with a CM, clinical and imaging data were collected. Patients with untreated cavernomas who had more than 6 months of clinical and MR imaging follow-up were included in a natural history analysis. The natural history analysis included 110 CMs in 56 patients with a 3.5-year mean clinical follow-up interval (199 patient-years and 361 cavernoma-years).

Results

In 92 patients (0.6%), 164 CMs were identified. The imaging prevalence of cavernomas increased with advancing age (p = 0.002). Multiple CMs occurred in 28 patients (30%), and 8 patients (9%) had a family history of multiple CMs. Fifty patients (54%) presented with symptoms related to the cavernoma, of whom 30 presented with hemorrhage (33%). Of the 164 cavernomas identified, 103 (63%) were considered incidental, asymptomatic lesions. Larger size was associated with acute symptomatic presentation (p = 0.0001). During the follow-up interval, 6 patients with 8 cavernomas developed 11 symptomatic hemorrhages after initial identification. Five of the patients who had a hemorrhage during the follow-up interval had initially presented with hemorrhage, while only 1 had presented incidentally. The hemorrhage rate for all patients in the natural history group was 1.6% per patient-year and 0.9% per cavernoma-year. The hemorrhage rate was 8.0% per patient-year in the symptomatic group versus 0.2% in the incidental group. Symptomatic hemorrhage after long-term follow-up was associated with initial acute presentation (p = 0.02).

Conclusions

The imaging prevalence of CM increases with advancing age during childhood. Patients presenting without hemorrhage have a significantly lower risk of bleeding compared with those who present with acute neurological symptoms. Comparing this series of children to prior analyses of CM natural history in adults, the authors' data do not suggest a higher bleeding risk in younger patients.

Full access

Kyle T. Johnson, Wajd N. Al-Holou, Richard C. E. Anderson, Thomas J. Wilson, Tejas Karnati, Mohannad Ibrahim, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Cormac O. Maher

OBJECTIVE

Our understanding of pediatric cervical spine development remains incomplete. The purpose of this analysis was to quantitatively define cervical spine growth in a population of children with normal CT scans.

METHODS

A total of 1458 children older than 1 year and younger than 18 years of age who had undergone a cervical spine CT scan at the authors' institution were identified. Subjects were separated by sex and age (in years) into 34 groups. Following this assignment, subjects within each group were randomly selected for inclusion until a target of 15 subjects in each group had been measured. Linear measurements were performed on the midsagittal image of the cervical spine. Twenty-three unique measurements were obtained for each subject.

RESULTS

Data showed that normal vertical growth of the pediatric cervical spine continues up to 18 years of age in boys and 14 years of age in girls. Approximately 75% of the vertical growth occurs throughout the subaxial spine and 25% occurs across the craniovertebral region. The C-2 body is the largest single-segment contributor to vertical growth, but the subaxial vertebral bodies and disc spaces also contribute. Overall vertical growth of the cervical spine throughout childhood is dependent on individual vertebral body growth as well as vertical growth of the disc spaces. The majority of spinal canal diameter growth occurs by 4 years of age.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors' morphometric analyses establish parameters for normal pediatric cervical spine growth up to 18 years of age. These data should be considered when evaluating children for potential surgical intervention and provide a basis of comparison for studies investigating the effects of cervical spine instrumentation and fusion on subsequent growth.

Free access

Michael J. Cools, Wajd N. Al-Holou, William R. Stetler Jr., Thomas J. Wilson, Karin M. Muraszko, Mohannad Ibrahim, Frank La Marca, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Cormac O. Maher

Object

Filum terminale lipomas (FTLs) are being identified with increasing frequency due to the increasing utilization of MRI. Although an FTL may be associated with tethered cord syndrome (TCS), in many cases FTLs are diagnosed incidentally in patients without any symptoms of TCS. The natural history of FTLs is not well defined.

Methods

The authors searched the clinical and imaging records at a single institution over a 14-year interval to identify patients with FTLs. For patients with an FTL, the clinical records were reviewed for indication for imaging, presenting symptoms, perceived need for surgery, and clinical outcome. A natural history analysis was performed using all patients with more than 6 months of clinical follow-up.

Results

A total of 436 patients with FTL were identified. There were 217 males and 219 females. Of these patients, 282 (65%) were adults and 154 (35%) were children. Symptoms of TCS were present in 22 patients (5%). Fifty-two patients underwent surgery for FTL (12%). Sixty-four patients (15%) had a low-lying conus and 21 (5%) had a syrinx. The natural history analysis included 249 patients with a mean follow-up time of 3.5 years. In the follow-up period, only 1 patient developed new symptoms.

Conclusions

Filum terminale lipomas are a common incidental finding on spinal MRI, and most patients present without associated symptoms. The untreated natural history is generally benign for asymptomatic patients.

Free access

Noah S. Cutler, Sudharsan Srinivasan, Bryan L. Aaron, Sharath Kumar Anand, Michael S. Kang, David B. Altshuler, Thomas C. Schermerhorn, Todd C. Hollon, Cormac O. Maher, and Siri Sahib S. Khalsa

OBJECTIVE

Normal percentile growth charts for head circumference, length, and weight are well-established tools for clinicians to detect abnormal growth patterns. Currently, no standard exists for evaluating normal size or growth of cerebral ventricular volume. The current standard practice relies on clinical experience for a subjective assessment of cerebral ventricular size to determine whether a patient is outside the normal volume range. An improved definition of normal ventricular volumes would facilitate a more data-driven diagnostic process. The authors sought to develop a growth curve of cerebral ventricular volumes using a large number of normal pediatric brain MR images.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients aged 0 to 18 years, who were evaluated at their institution between 2009 and 2016 with brain MRI performed for headaches, convulsions, or head injury. Patients were excluded for diagnoses of hydrocephalus, congenital brain malformations, intracranial hemorrhage, meningitis, or intracranial mass lesions established at any time during a 3- to 10-year follow-up. The volume of the cerebral ventricles for each T2-weighted MRI sequence was calculated with a custom semiautomated segmentation program written in MATLAB. Normal percentile curves were calculated using the lambda-mu-sigma smoothing method.

RESULTS

Ventricular volume was calculated for 687 normal brain MR images obtained in 617 different patients. A chart with standardized growth curves was developed from this set of normal ventricular volumes representing the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. The charted data were binned by age at scan date by 3-month intervals for ages 0–1 year, 6-month intervals for ages 1–3 years, and 12-month intervals for ages 3–18 years. Additional percentile values were calculated for boys only and girls only.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors developed centile estimation growth charts of normal 3D ventricular volumes measured on brain MRI for pediatric patients. These charts may serve as a quantitative clinical reference to help discern normal variance from pathologic ventriculomegaly.

Full access

Jennifer Strahle, Ndi Geh, Béla J. Selzer, Regina Bower, Mai Himedan, MaryKathryn Strahle, Nicholas M. Wetjen, Karin M. Muraszko, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Cormac O. Maher

OBJECT

There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with Chiari I malformation (CM-I). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with the imaging finding of CM-I.

METHODS

A prospective survey was administered to 503 CM-I patients at 2 sites over a 46-month period. Data were gathered on imaging characteristics, treatment, sports participation, and any sport-related injuries. Additionally, 81 patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry and were included in a prospective group, with a mean prospective follow-up period of 11 months.

RESULTS

Of the 503 CM-I patients, 328 participated in sports for a cumulative duration of 4641 seasons; 205 of these patients participated in contact sports. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. One patient had temporary extremity paresthesias that resolved within hours, and this was not definitely considered to be related to the CM-I. In the prospective cohort, there were no permanent neurological injuries.

CONCLUSIONS

No permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries were observed in CM-I patients participating in athletic activities. The authors believe that the risk of such injuries is low and that, in most cases, sports participation by children with CM-I is safe.

Restricted access

Wajd N. Al-Holou, Samuel W. Terman, Craig Kilburg, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, William F. Chandler, Mohannad Ibrahim, and Cormac O. Maher

Object

We reviewed our experience with pineal cysts to define the natural history and clinical relevance of this common intracranial finding.

Methods

The study population consisted of 48,417 consecutive patients who underwent brain MR imaging at a single institution over a 12-year interval and who were over 18 years of age at the time of imaging. Patient characteristics, including demographic data and other intracranial diagnoses, were collected from cases involving patients with a pineal cyst. We then identified all patients with pineal cysts who had been clinically evaluated at our institution and who had at least 6 months of clinical and imaging follow-up. All inclusion criteria for the natural history analysis were met in 151 patients.

Results

Pineal cysts measuring 5 mm or larger in greatest dimension were found in 478 patients (1.0%). Of these, 162 patients were male and 316 were female. On follow-up MR imaging of 151 patients with pineal cyst at a mean interval of 3.4 years from the initial study, 124 pineal cysts remained stable, 4 increased in size, and 23 decreased in size. Cysts that were larger at the time of initial diagnosis were more likely to decrease in size over the follow-up interval (p = 0.004). Patient sex, patient age at diagnosis, and the presence of septations within the cyst were not significantly associated with cyst change on follow-up.

Conclusions

Follow-up imaging and neurosurgical evaluation are not mandatory for adults with asymptomatic pineal cysts.

Free access

Natalie Limoges, Erin D’Agostino, Aaron Gelinne, Cormac O. Maher, R. Michael Scott, Gerald Grant, Mark D. Krieger, David D. Limbrick Jr., Michael White, and Susan Durham

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric neurosurgery is a core component of neurosurgical residency training. Pediatric case minimums are established by the Neurosurgery Residency Review Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Case minimums, by themselves, allow for great variability in training between programs. There are no prior data on how the residency programs meet these requirements. The authors’ objective was to gather information on pediatric neurosurgical education among the ACGME-accredited neurosurgery training programs in order to shape further pediatric neurosurgical educational efforts.

METHODS

A 25-question survey about pediatric neurosurgical education was created by the Education Committee of the Section on Pediatric Neurological Surgery of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons and distributed to program directors of all 111 ACGME-accredited neurosurgery training programs.

RESULTS

The response rate was 77% (86/111). In 55% of programs the residents are rotated to a responder-designated “freestanding” children’s hospital, and 39% of programs rotate residents to a children’s hospital within a larger adult hospital or a general hospital. There are 4 or fewer pediatric neurosurgical faculty in 91% of programs. In 12% of programs less than 100 cases are performed per year, and in 45% more than 500 are performed. In 31% of responding neurosurgery residency programs there is also a pediatric neurosurgery fellowship program supported by the same sponsoring institution. Seventy-seven percent of programs have at least one specific pediatric neurosurgery rotation, with 71% of those rotations occurring during postgraduate year 3 and 50% occurring during postgraduate year 4. The duration of pediatric rotation varies from no specific rotation to more than 1 year, with 48% of residents spending 4–6 months on a pediatric rotation and 12% spending 7–11 months. Last, 17% of programs send their residents to external sites sponsoring other residency programs for their pediatric rotation.

CONCLUSIONS

There is great variety between neurosurgery training programs with regard to resident education in pediatric neurosurgery. This study’s data will serve as a baseline for future studies, and the authors hope the findings will guide further efforts in pediatric neurosurgical education in residency training programs.

Restricted access

Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Gail M. Annich, Andrea R. Yancon, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, and Cormac O. Maher

Object

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a potentially life-saving treatment for patients in refractory cardiorespiratory failure. Neurological complications that result from ECMO treatment are known to significantly impact patient survival and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to review the incidence of neurological complications of ECMO in the pediatric population and the role of neurosurgery in the treatment of these patients.

Methods

Data were obtained from the national Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry for the years 1990 to 2009. The neurological complications recorded by the registry include CNS hemorrhage, CNS infarction, and seizure. The ECMO Registry at the authors' institution was then searched, and 3 pediatric patients who had undergone craniotomy during ECMO treatment were identified.

Results

Children in the ELSO Registry who were treated with ECMO survived to hospital discharge in 65% of cases. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 7.4% of the ECMO-treated patients, with 36% of those surviving to hospital discharge. Hemorrhage was more likely in patients younger than 30 days old and in those requiring ECMO for cardiac indications. Cerebral infarction occurred in 5.7% of all ECMO-treated patients. Clinically diagnosed seizures occurred in 8.4% of all ECMO-treated patients. The ECMO Registry at the authors' institution revealed that 1898 patients were treated there. Intracranial hemorrhage was diagnosed in 81 patients (5.8%), and 3 of these patients were treated with craniotomy. Two of the patients were alive with minimal neurological impairment and normal school performance at 10 and 16 years of follow-up.

Conclusions

Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious complication of ECMO treatment. While the surgical risk is substantial, there may be a role for surgical evacuation of hemorrhage in well-selected patients.

Full access

Siri Sahib S. Khalsa, Ndi Geh, Bryn A. Martin, Philip A. Allen, Jennifer Strahle, Francis Loth, Desale Habtzghi, Aintzane Urbizu Serrano, Daniel McQuaide, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, and Cormac O. Maher

OBJECTIVE

Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is typically defined on imaging by a cerebellar tonsil position ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum. Low cerebellar tonsil position is a frequent incidental finding on brain or cervical spine imaging, even in asymptomatic individuals. Nonspecific symptoms (e.g., headache and neck pain) are common in those with low tonsil position as well as in those with normal tonsil position, leading to uncertainty regarding appropriate management for many patients with low tonsil position and nonspecific symptoms. Because cerebellar tonsil position is not strictly correlated with the presence of typical CM-I symptoms, the authors sought to determine if other 2D morphometric or 3D volumetric measurements on MRI could distinguish between patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic CM-I.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed records of 102 pediatric patients whose records were in the University of Michigan clinical CM-I database. All patients in this database had cerebellar tonsil position ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum. Fifty-one symptomatic and 51 asymptomatic patients were matched for age at diagnosis, sex, tonsil position, and tonsil morphology. National Institutes of Health ImageJ software was used to obtain six 2D anatomical MRI measurements, and a semiautomated segmentation tool was used to obtain four 3D volumetric measurements of the posterior fossa and CSF subvolumes on MRI.

RESULTS

No significant differences were observed between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic CM-I related to tentorium length (50.3 vs 51.0 mm; p = 0.537), supraoccipital length (39.4 vs 42.6 mm; p = 0.055), clivus-tentorium distance (52.0 vs 52.1 mm; p = 0.964), clivus-torcula distance (81.5 vs 83.3 mm; p = 0.257), total posterior fossa volume (PFV; 183.4 vs 190.6 ml; p = 0.250), caudal PFV (152.5 vs 159.8 ml; p = 0.256), fourth ventricle volume to caudal PFV ratio (0.0140 vs 0.0136; p = 0.649), or CSF volume to caudal PFV ratio (0.071 vs 0.061; p = 0.138).

CONCLUSIONS

No clinically useful 2D or 3D measurements were identified that could reliably distinguish pediatric patients with symptoms attributable to CM-I from those with asymptomatic CM-I.