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Changes in the components and content of biological water in the brain of experimental hydrocephalic rabbits

Norihiko Tamaki, Haruo Yamashita, Mitsuru Kimura, Kazumasa Ehara, Masahiro Asada, Tatsuya Nagashima, Satoshi Matsumoto, and Masao Hashimoto

✓ Changes in biological water components and their respective content in the cortical gray matter and periventricular white matter were studied in rabbits rendered hydrocephalic by intracisternal kaolin injection. There was no change in either total water content or free or bound water content in the cortical gray matter at the various stages of hydrocephalus development. While there was no significant change in total water content in the periventricular white matter at any stage of hydrocephalus, free water content was significantly elevated and bound water content was decreased at the acute and subacute stages, with a return to relatively normal levels at the chronic stage. It is concluded that in the periventricular white matter, free water enters the brain across the ependymal lining during the acute and subacute stages of experimental hydrocephalus with a simultaneous reduction in the bound water and that there is some recovery at the chronic stage. It is suggested that alternative drainage pathways may develop in chronic hydrocephalus allowing drainage of free water in the periventricular white matter, which in turn permits bound water to return to relatively normal levels.

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Hydromyelic hydrocephalus

Correlation of hydromyelia with various stages of hydrocephalus in postshunt isolated compartments

Shizuo Oi, Hiroshi Kudo, Hiroshi Yamada, Songyu Kim, Seiji Hamano, Seishiro Urui, and Satoshi Matsumoto

✓ The clinical features and pathophysiology of specific forms of hydromyelia are analyzed in this report together with the chronological changes of associated hydrocephalus. Nine patients were studied; all had hydromyelia with varying degrees of associated hydrocephalus. Clinically applicable classification systems were used to evaluate the progression of hydrocephalus (Stages I to IV) and to define the compartment isolated after shunting in the previously communicating cerebral ventricles (Types I to IV). Four patients had Stage IV disease (holoneural canal dilatation); one had Stage II and four had Stage I disease (both Stages I and II with supratentorial hydrocephalus). All patients were initially treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunting at an average age of 9.9 years. Five patients had progressive spinal symptoms before or after treatment of their hydrocephalus. Two patients had Type III isolation (an isolated rhombencephalic ventricle) with a functioning ventricular shunt; ventriculography confirmed a communication between the fourth ventricle and the hydromyelia, and both patients improved after placement of a shunt in the fourth ventricle. The remaining patients had Type IV isolation (isolated central canal dilatation) with a functioning ventricular shunt. This study indicates that in some cases the pathophysiology of hydromyelia is closely related to associated hydrocephalus. A new concept of the development of an isolated compartment after shunting is proposed to explain the progression of hydromyelia in these cases.

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Myelomeningocele and thick filum terminale with tethered cord appearing as a human tail

Case report

Shushovan Chakrabortty, Shizuo Oi, Yasuhisa Yoshida, Hiroshi Yamada, Michio Yamaguchi, Norihiko Tamaki, and Satoshi Matsumoto

✓ Tail-like caudal appendages may be associated with spinal dysraphism, particularly with spinal lipomas or lipomyelomeningoceles. An unusual case is presented of a patient with a myelomeningocele and a thick filum terminale with tethered spinal cord, which presented with the external appearance of a human tail. A review of the literature reveals that human tails may be associated with dysraphic conditions. Extensive neuroradiological examinations should be performed for all such cases of apparent tails.

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Modulation of blood flow following excision of a high-flow cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Case report

Norihiko Tamaki, Tingkai Lin, Masahiro Asada, Katsuzo Fujita, Shogo Tominaga, Mitsuru Kimura, Kazumasa Ehara, and Satoshi Matsumoto

✓ The authors present a case in which a large high-flow arteriovenous malformation was totally excised. The success of the operation was in part attributed to the prevention of hyperperfusion breakthrough phenomena by the use of Selverstone clamps on the cervical carotid artery. Monitoring of cortical blood flow during surgery was found to be helpful.

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Quantitative analysis of glutathione in human brain tumors

Hiroshi Kudo, Takaya Mio, Takashi Kokunai, Norihiko Tamaki, Kimiaki Sumino, and Satoshi Matsumoto

✓ Reduced glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH) plays an important role in the protection of cells against damage from free radicals and other electrophils and also influences cellular radiosensitivity, cellular response to hyperthermia, and cytotoxicity to some kinds of chemotherapeutic agents. The concentrations of GSH in 40 primary and metastatic brain tumors were quantitatively analyzed, and GSH was localized in these tumors by a novel o-phthalaldehyde histofluorescence method. The level of GSH was 195.2 ± 57.1 µg/gm (mean ± standard deviation) in glioblastomas multiforme, 444.1 ± 105.1 µg/gm in normal brain tissues, and 614.4 ± 237.4 µg/gm in meningiomas. The differences in GSH levels between glioblastomas and normal brain tissues and between glioblastomas and meningiomas were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The mean GSH level in astrocytoma grades II and III was 321.9 ± 11.8 µg/gm. The difference in the GSH level between glioblastomas and astrocytomas was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Radiosensitive tumors, such as multiple myeloma, germinoma, and small-cell carcinoma, showed low GSH levels. These data suggest the possibility that the GSH may be a predictor for the efficacy of radiation therapy. The cytochemical study showed GSH localized in the cytoplasm; although it stained well in meningioma tissue, GSH was not well stained in sections of multiple myeloma. The endothelial proliferation did not stain well in glioblastoma, which seems to imply that this area is vulnerable to attack by free radicals from irradiation and/or chemotherapy.

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Polycystic kidney disease and intracranial aneurysms

Early angiographic diagnosis and early operation for the unruptured aneurysm

Toshimitsu Wakabayashi, Shigekiyo Fujita, Yoshiro Ohbora, Tohru Suyama, Norihiko Tamaki, and Satoshi Matsumoto

✓ From August, 1981, to August, 1982, the authors performed four-vessel angiography in 17 patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) who had no neurological deficit and no history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Seven cases of unruptured aneurysms were found among these 17 patients (an incidence of 41.2%). Five of the unruptured aneurysms were operated on prophylactically, with no mortality or morbidity. Nine of the 17 patients had hypertension and, of these, two (22.2%) had aneurysms. Of the eight patients without hypertension, five (62.5%) had aneurysms. This study suggests that the coexistence of PKD and intracranial aneurysms might not be due to the hypertension that occurs concomitant with PKD, but instead may be attributable to congenital factors. The authors stress the necessity of early diagnosis and early operation for unruptured aneurysms in patients with PKD.

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Fatal intracranial hemorrhage after balloon occlusion of an extracranial vertebral arteriovenous fistula

Case report

Takeshi Kondoh, Norihiko Tamaki, Naoya Takeda, Touru Suyama, Shizuo Oi, and Satoshi Matsumoto

✓ A patient is presented who developed a fatal hemorrhage immediately after balloon occlusion of an extracranial vertebral arteriovenous fistula. The fistula was associated with marked retrograde flow not only from the contralateral vertebral artery but also from the carotid artery system through the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery. The bleeding appeared to be caused by acute hemodynamic effects following abrupt occlusion of the long-standing fistula. A gradual staged occlusion or trapping procedure should be considered for the treatment of such vertebral arteriovenous fistulae.

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White epidermoid cyst transformation after stereotactic radiosurgery: illustrative case

Hideki Matsumoto, Yuki Shinya, Satoru Miyawaki, Masahiro Shin, Satoshi Koizumi, Daisuke Sato, Munetoshi Hinata, Masako Ikemura, Satoshi Kiyofuji, Taich Kin, Mototaro Iwanaga, Masahiro Shimizu, Hirofumi Nakatomi, and Nobuhito Saito


White epidermoid cysts (WECs) are a rare type of epidermoid cyst with atypical radiological features. The epidemiological aspects and mechanisms of their onset remain unknown. Herein, the authors report a unique case of WEC transformation from a typical epidermoid cyst after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), confirmed by radiological and pathological findings.


The case involved a 78-year-old man with a history of 2 surgeries for a left cerebellopontine angle typical epidermoid cyst 23 years earlier and SRS using the CyberKnife for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia (TN) 14 years earlier. The tumor with high intensity on T1-weighted imaging, low intensity on T2-weighted imaging, without restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging had gradually enlarged after SRS. Therefore, a salvage surgery was performed via a left suboccipital craniotomy, and the intraoperative findings showed a cyst with a brown, viscous liquid component, consistent with those of WECs. Histopathologically, keratin calcification and hemorrhage were identified, leading to a diagnosis of WEC. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the TN resolved. No tumor recurrence was recorded at 2 years postoperatively.


To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first world case of WEC transformation from a typical epidermoid cyst after SRS, confirmed by radiological and pathological findings. Radiation effects could have been involved in this transformation.

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Different learning curves between stent retrieval and a direct aspiration first-pass technique for acute ischemic stroke

Hidehisa Nishi, Akira Ishii, Ichiro Nakahara, Shoji Matsumoto, Nobutake Sadamasa, Yasutoshi Kai, Ryota Ishibashi, Michio Yamamoto, Satoshi Morita, and Izumi Nagata


The clinical outcomes of a direct aspiration first-pass technique (ADAPT) and stent retriever (SR) have been reported to be similar in several observational studies. In this study, procedural and clinical outcomes with ADAPT and SR for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with large artery occlusion were compared in different time periods.


In each specific time period, SR and ADAPT were used as the first-line treatment approach for acute ischemic stroke patients with large artery occlusion at the authors’ institution. Baseline characteristics, procedural variables, and functional outcome at 90 days were compared between patients treated with SR and those treated with ADAPT. These 2 groups were divided into 3 sequential subgroups to assess the learning curve effects of the endovascular team and individual operators on the procedural variables of each treatment strategy.


Overall, 89 patients were treated. In the SR group, the recanalization rate was higher (84% vs 65%; p = 0.01) and the procedure time was shorter than in the ADAPT group (median 42 minutes vs 76 minutes, p = 0.04). On the subgroup analysis of the learning curve, the SR group showed more rapid improvement in procedure time than the ADAPT group (p = 0.01 for the team; p < 0.01 for individual operators).


In this initial experience, a higher recanalization rate and shorter procedure time were achieved with SR than with ADAPT. A high recanalization rate with SR was possible with relatively less clinical experience, whereas procedure time dramatically decreased with experience. These observed effects on the learning curve might be useful when choosing the method for initial endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke at relatively small stroke centers.

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Detection of human glioma-associated antigen by rat monoclonal antibody raised against syngeneic rat glioma cells

Hideyuki Saya, Takashi Masuko, Takashi Kokunai, Hideo Yagita, Akihiro Ijichi, Katsushi Taomoto, Norihiko Tamaki, Satoshi Matsumoto, and Yoshiyuki Hashimoto

✓ A monoclonal antibody termed “FR77” was obtained from a hybridoma clone established by fusion between P3x63Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells of a Fischer F344 rat hyperimmune to syngeneic 9L/R3 glioma cells. Immunoperoxidase staining of various cultured cells showed that FR77 was reactive to both rat and human glioma cells, but was not reactive with other nonglioma cells. Immunohistochemical examination of paraffin-embedded or cryostat-frozen sections of various human tissues revealed that FR77 was strongly reactive with glioblastoma, grade III astrocytoma, and craniopharyngioma; partially reactive with intracerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pineoblastoma, and desmoplastic medulloblastoma; and weakly reactive with low-grade astrocytoma. It was not reactive with other types of brain tumors and normal human tissues tested. The FR77-defined antigen was observed to be predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of antigen-bearing cells as suggested by the immunostaining pattern, but part of it was also expressed on the cell surface of glioma cells as demonstrated by a complement-mediated cytotoxic test. Fractionation of the antigenic component and periodic acid treatment of tumor tissue bearing the FR77-defined antigen indicated that the antigen is of a neutral glycolipid nature and that the antigenic determinant to FR77 is present on its sugar portion.