Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are critical anatomical structures involved in nociception. Intraganglionic (IG) drug delivery is therefore an important route of administration for novel analgesic therapies. Although IG injection in large animal models is highly desirable for preclinical biodistribution and toxicology studies of new drugs, no method to deliver pharmaceutical agents into the DRG has been reported in any large species. The present study describes a minimally invasive technique of IG agent delivery in domestic swine, one of the most common large animal models. The technique utilizes CT guidance for DRG targeting and a custom-made injection assembly for convectionenhanced delivery (CED) of therapeutic agents directly into DRG parenchyma. The DRG were initially visualized by CT myelography to determine the optimal access route to the DRG. The subsequent IG injection consisted of 3 steps. First, a commercially available guide needle was advanced to a position dorsolateral to the DRG, and the dural root sleeve was punctured, leaving the guide needle contiguous with, but not penetrating, the DRG. Second, the custom-made stepped stylet was inserted through the guide needle into the DRG parenchyma. Third, the stepped stylet was replaced by the custom-made stepped needle, which was used for the IG CED. Initial dye injections performed in pig cadavers confirmed the accuracy of DRG targeting under CT guidance. Intraganglionic administration of adeno-associated virus in vivo resulted in a unilateral transduction of the injected DRG, with 33.5% DRG neurons transduced. Transgene expression was also found in the dorsal root entry zones at the corresponding spinal levels. The results thereby confirm the efficacy of CED by the stepped needle and a selectivity of DRG targeting. Imaging-based modeling of the procedure in humans suggests that IG CED may be translatable to the clinical setting.
Josef Pleticha, Timothy P. Maus, Jodie A. Christner, Michael P. Marsh, Kendall H. Lee, W. Michael Hooten, and Andreas S. Beutler
Young-Min Shon, Su-Youne Chang, Susannah J. Tye, Christopher J. Kimble, Kevin E. Bennet, Charles D. Blaha, and Kendall H. Lee
The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators involved in the physiological effects of DBS. This would in turn permit the development of a method of chemically guided placement of DBS electrodes in vivo. Designed in compliance with FDA-recognized standards for medical electrical device safety, the authors report on the utility of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for real-time comonitoring of electrical stimulation–evoked adenosine and dopamine efflux in vivo, utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a polyacrylonitrile-based (T-650) carbon fiber microelectrode (CFM).
The WINCS was used for FSCV, which consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and +1.5 V at a rate of 400 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages applied to the CFM were with respect to an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single T-650 carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling to a microscopic tip using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 50 μm. Proof of principle tests included in vitro measurements of adenosine and dopamine, as well as in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring adenosine and dopamine efflux in the dorsomedial caudate putamen evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra.
The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of adenosine efflux. Peak oxidative currents appeared at +1.5 V and at +1.0 V for adenosine, separate from the peak oxidative current at +0.6 V for dopamine. The WINCS detected subsecond adenosine and dopamine efflux in the caudate putamen at an implanted CFM during high-frequency stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Both in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated that WINCS can detect adenosine in the presence of other easily oxidizable neurochemicals such as dopamine comparable to the detection abilities of a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV.
Altogether, these results demonstrate that WINCS is well suited for wireless monitoring of high-frequency stimulation-evoked changes in brain extracellular concentrations of adenosine. Clinical applications of selective adenosine measurements may prove important to the future development of DBS technology.
Jamie J. Van Gompel, Su-Youne Chang, Stephan J. Goerss, In Yong Kim, Christopher Kimble, Kevin E. Bennet, and Kendall H. Lee
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective when there appears to be a distortion in the complex neurochemical circuitry of the brain. Currently, the mechanism of DBS is incompletely understood; however, it has been hypothesized that DBS evokes release of neurochemicals. Well-established chemical detection systems such as microdialysis and mass spectrometry are impractical if one is assessing changes that are happening on a second-to-second time scale or for chronically used implanted recordings, as would be required for DBS feedback. Electrochemical detection techniques such as fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and amperometry have until recently remained in the realm of basic science; however, it is enticing to apply these powerful recording technologies to clinical and translational applications. The Wireless Instantaneous Neurochemical Concentration Sensor (WINCS) currently is a research device designed for human use capable of in vivo FSCV and amperometry, sampling at subsecond time resolution. In this paper, the authors review recent advances in this electrochemical application to DBS technologies. The WINCS can detect dopamine, adenosine, and serotonin by FSCV. For example, FSCV is capable of detecting dopamine in the caudate evoked by stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus/substantia nigra in pig and rat models of DBS. It is further capable of detecting dopamine by amperometry and, when used with enzyme linked sensors, both glutamate and adenosine. In conclusion, WINCS is a highly versatile instrument that allows near real-time (millisecond) detection of neurochemicals important to DBS research. In the future, the neurochemical changes detected using WINCS may be important as surrogate markers for proper DBS placement as well as the sensor component for a “smart” DBS system with electrochemical feedback that allows automatic modulation of stimulation parameters. Current work is under way to establish WINCS use in humans.
Jamie J. Van Gompel, Bryan T. Klassen, Gregory A. Worrell, Kendall H. Lee, Cheolsu Shin, Cong Zhi Zhao, Desmond A. Brown, Steven J. Goerss, Bruce A. Kall, and Matt Stead
Anterior nuclear (AN) stimulation has been reported to reduce the frequency of seizures, in some cases dramatically; however, it has not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The anterior nucleus is difficult to target because of its sequestered location, partially surrounded by the ventricle. It has traditionally been targeted by using transventricular or lateral transcortical routes. Here, the authors report a novel approach to targeting the anterior nucleus and neurophysiologically confirming effective stimulation of the target, namely evoked potentials in the hippocampus.
Bilateral AN 3389 electrodes were placed in a novel trajectory followed by bilateral hippocampal 3391 electrodes from a posterior trajectory. Each patient was implanted bilaterally with a Medtronic Activa PC+S device under an investigational device exemption approval. Placement was confirmed with CT. AN stimulation-induced hippocampal evoked potentials were measured to functionally confirm placement in the anterior nucleus.
Two patients had implantations by way of a novel AN trajectory with concomitant hippocampal electrodes. There were no lead misplacements. Postoperative stimulation of the anterior nucleus with a PC+S device elicited evoked potentials in the hippocampus. Thus far, both patients have reported a > 50% improvement in seizure frequency.
Placing AN electrodes posteriorly may provide a safer trajectory than that used for traditionally placed AN electrodes. In addition, with a novel battery that is capable of electroencephalographic recording, evoked potentials can be used to functionally assess the Papez circuit. This treatment paradigm may offer increased AN stimulation efficacy for medically intractable epilepsy by assessing functional placement more effectively and thus far has proven safe.
Olivia O. Huston, Robert E. Watson, Matt A. Bernstein, Kiaran P. McGee, S. Matt Stead, Debb A. Gorman, Kendall H. Lee, and John Huston III
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established neurosurgical technique used to treat a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, epilepsy, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study reports on the use of intraoperative MR imaging during DBS surgery to evaluate acute hemorrhage, intracranial air, brain shift, and accuracy of lead placement.
During a 46-month period, 143 patients underwent 152 DBS surgeries including 289 lead placements utilizing intraoperative 1.5-T MR imaging. Imaging was supervised by an MR imaging physicist to maintain the specific absorption rate below the required level of 0.1 W/kg and always included T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo and T2* gradient echo sequences with selected use of T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 fast spin echo (FSE). Retrospective review of the intraoperative MR imaging examinations was performed to quantify the amount of hemorrhage and the amount of air introduced during the DBS surgery.
Intraoperative MR imaging revealed 5 subdural hematomas, 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 9 of the 143 patients. Only 1 patient experiencing a subarachnoid hemorrhage developed clinically apparent symptoms, which included transient severe headache and mild confusion. Brain shift due to intracranial air was identified in 144 separate instances.
Intraoperative MR imaging can be safely performed and may assist in demonstrating acute changes involving intracranial hemorrhage and air during DBS surgery. These findings are rarely clinically significant and typically resolve prior to follow-up imaging. Selective use of T2 FLAIR and T2 FSE imaging can confirm the presence of hemorrhage or air and preclude the need for CT examinations.
William S. Gibson, Aaron E. Rusheen, Yoonbae Oh, Myung-Ho In, Krzysztof R. Gorny, Joel P. Felmlee, Bryan T. Klassen, Sung Jun Jung, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H. Lee, and Hang Joon Jo
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an established neurosurgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). While often highly effective, DBS does not always yield optimal therapeutic outcomes, and stimulation-induced adverse effects, including paresthesia, muscle contractions, and nausea/lightheadedness, commonly occur and can limit the efficacy of stimulation. Currently, objective metrics do not exist for monitoring neural changes associated with stimulation-induced therapeutic and adverse effects.
In the present study, the authors combined intraoperative functional MRI (fMRI) with STN DBS in 20 patients with PD to test the hypothesis that stimulation-induced blood oxygen level–dependent signals contained predictive information concerning the therapeutic and adverse effects of stimulation.
As expected, DBS resulted in blood oxygen level–dependent activation in myriad motor regions, including the primary motor cortex, caudate, putamen, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. Across the patients, DBS-induced improvements in contralateral Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale tremor subscores correlated with activation of thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. In addition, improvements in rigidity and bradykinesia subscores correlated with activation of the primary motor cortex. Finally, activation of specific sensorimotor-related subregions correlated with the presence of DBS-induced adverse effects, including paresthesia and nausea (cerebellar cortex, sensorimotor cortex) and unwanted muscle contractions (caudate and putamen).
These results suggest that DBS-induced activation patterns revealed by fMRI contain predictive information with respect to the therapeutic and adverse effects of DBS. The use of fMRI in combination with DBS therefore may hold translational potential to guide and improve clinical stimulator optimization in patients.
Filippo Agnesi, Susannah J. Tye, Jonathan M. Bledsoe, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Christopher J. Kimble, Gary C. Sieck, Kevin E. Bennet, Paul A. Garris, Charles D. Blaha, and Kendall H. Lee
In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time.
The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme–linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme–linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig.
The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA.
By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery.
Zang-Hee Cho, Hoon-Ki Min, Se-Hong Oh, Jae-Yong Han, Chan-Woong Park, Je-Geun Chi, Young-Bo Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Andres M. Lozano, and Kendall H. Lee
A challenge associated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in treating advanced Parkinson disease (PD) is the direct visualization of brain nuclei, which often involves indirect approximations of stereotactic targets. In the present study, the authors compared T2*-weighted images obtained using 7-T MR imaging with those obtained using 1.5- and 3-T MR imaging to ascertain whether 7-T imaging enables better visualization of targets for DBS in PD.
The authors compared 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T MR images obtained in 11 healthy volunteers and 1 patient with PD.
With 7-T imaging, distinct images of the brain were obtained, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi). Compared with the 1.5- and 3-T MR images of the STN and GPi, the 7-T MR images showed marked improvements in spatial resolution, tissue contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio.
Data in this study reveal the superiority of 7-T MR imaging for visualizing structures targeted for DBS in the management of PD. This finding suggests that by enabling the direct visualization of neural structures of interest, 7-T MR imaging could be a valuable aid in neurosurgical procedures.
Jonathan M. Bledsoe, Christopher J. Kimble, Daniel P. Covey, Charles D. Blaha, Filippo Agnesi, Pedram Mohseni, Sidney Whitlock, David M. Johnson, April Horne, Kevin E. Bennet, Kendall H. Lee, and Paul A. Garris
Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain.
The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 μm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system.
The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2) Bluetooth transceiver; 3) microprocessor; and 4) direct-current battery. A Windows-XP laptop computer running custom software and equipped with a Universal Serial Bus–connected Bluetooth transceiver served as the base station. Computer software directed wireless data acquisition at 100 kilosamples/second and remote control of FSCV operation and adjustable waveform parameters. The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of dopamine and other neurochemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and ascorbic acid by using FSCV at CFM and by flow injection analysis. In rats, the WINCS detected subsecond striatal dopamine release at the implanted sensor during high-frequency stimulation of ascending dopaminergic fibers. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated comparable signals to a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Importantly, the WINCS reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic noise typically found in an operating room setting.
Taken together, these results demonstrate that the WINCS is well suited for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring. It is anticipated that neurotransmitter measurements at an implanted chemical sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery.
Peter J. Grahn, Kendall H. Lee, Aimen Kasasbeh, Grant W. Mallory, Jan T. Hachmann, John R. Dube, Christopher J. Kimble, Darlene A. Lobel, Allan Bieber, Ju Ho Jeong, Kevin E. Bennet, and J. Luis Lujan
Despite a promising outlook, existing intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) techniques for restoring functional motor control after spinal cord injury are not yet suitable for use outside a controlled laboratory environment. Thus, successful application of ISMS therapy in humans will require the use of versatile chronic neurostimulation systems. The objective of this study was to establish proof of principle for wireless control of ISMS to evoke controlled motor function in a rodent model of complete spinal cord injury.
The lumbar spinal cord in each of 17 fully anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was stimulated via ISMS electrodes to evoke hindlimb function. Nine subjects underwent complete surgical transection of the spinal cord at the T-4 level 7 days before stimulation. Targeting for both groups (spinalized and control) was performed under visual inspection via dorsal spinal cord landmarks such as the dorsal root entry zone and the dorsal median fissure. Teflon-insulated stimulating platinum-iridium microwire electrodes (50 μm in diameter, with a 30- to 60-μm exposed tip) were implanted within the ventral gray matter to an approximate depth of 1.8 mm. Electrode implantation was performed using a free-hand delivery technique (n = 12) or a Kopf spinal frame system (n = 5) to compare the efficacy of these 2 commonly used targeting techniques. Stimulation was controlled remotely using a wireless neurostimulation control system. Hindlimb movements evoked by stimulation were tracked via kinematic markers placed on the hips, knees, ankles, and paws. Postmortem fixation and staining of the spinal cord tissue were conducted to determine the final positions of the stimulating electrodes within the spinal cord tissue.
The results show that wireless ISMS was capable of evoking controlled and sustained activation of ankle, knee, and hip muscles in 90% of the spinalized rats (n = 9) and 100% of the healthy control rats (n = 8). No functional differences between movements evoked by either of the 2 targeting techniques were revealed. However, frame-based targeting required fewer electrode penetrations to evoke target movements.
Clinical restoration of functional movement via ISMS remains a distant goal. However, the technology presented herein represents the first step toward restoring functional independence for individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.