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Use of surgical video–based automated performance metrics to predict blood loss and success of simulated vascular injury control in neurosurgery: a pilot study

Dhiraj J. Pangal, Guillaume Kugener, Tyler Cardinal, Elizabeth Lechtholz-Zey, Casey Collet, Sasha Lasky, Shivani Sundaram, Yichao Zhu, Arman Roshannai, Justin Chan, Aditya Sinha, Andrew J. Hung, Animashree Anandkumar, Gabriel Zada, and Daniel A. Donoho

OBJECTIVE

Experts can assess surgeon skill using surgical video, but a limited number of expert surgeons are available. Automated performance metrics (APMs) are a promising alternative but have not been created from operative videos in neurosurgery to date. The authors aimed to evaluate whether video-based APMs can predict task success and blood loss during endonasal endoscopic surgery in a validated cadaveric simulator of vascular injury of the internal carotid artery.

METHODS

Videos of cadaveric simulation trials by 73 neurosurgeons and otorhinolaryngologists were analyzed and manually annotated with bounding boxes to identify the surgical instruments in the frame. APMs in five domains were defined—instrument usage, time-to-phase, instrument disappearance, instrument movement, and instrument interactions—on the basis of expert analysis and task-specific surgical progressions. Bounding-box data of instrument position were then used to generate APMs for each trial. Multivariate linear regression was used to test for the associations between APMs and blood loss and task success (hemorrhage control in less than 5 minutes). The APMs of 93 successful trials were compared with the APMs of 49 unsuccessful trials.

RESULTS

In total, 29,151 frames of surgical video were annotated. Successful simulation trials had superior APMs in each domain, including proportionately more time spent with the key instruments in view (p < 0.001) and less time without hemorrhage control (p = 0.002). APMs in all domains improved in subsequent trials after the participants received personalized expert instruction. Attending surgeons had superior instrument usage, time-to-phase, and instrument disappearance metrics compared with resident surgeons (p < 0.01). APMs predicted surgeon performance better than surgeon training level or prior experience. A regression model that included APMs predicted blood loss with an R2 value of 0.87 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Video-based APMs were superior predictors of simulation trial success and blood loss than surgeon characteristics such as case volume and attending status. Surgeon educators can use APMs to assess competency, quantify performance, and provide actionable, structured feedback in order to improve patient outcomes. Validation of APMs provides a benchmark for further development of fully automated video assessment pipelines that utilize machine learning and computer vision.

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Adjuvant versus on-progression Gamma Knife radiosurgery for residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a matched-cohort analysis

Georgios Mantziaris, Stylianos Pikis, Tomas Chytka, Roman Liščák, Kimball Sheehan, Darrah Sheehan, Selcuk Peker, Yavuz Samanci, Shray K. Bindal, Ajay Niranjan, L. Dade Lunsford, Rupinder Kaur, Renu Madan, Manjul Tripathi, Dhiraj J. Pangal, Ben A. Strickland, Gabriel Zada, Anne-Marie Langlois, David Mathieu, Ronald E. Warnick, Samir Patel, Zayda Minier, Herwin Speckter, Zhiyuan Xu, Rithika Kormath Anand, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Radiological progression occurs in 50%–60% of residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective management option for residual NFPAs, but there is no consensus on its optimal timing. This study aims to define the optimal timing of SRS for residual NFPAs.

METHODS

This retrospective, multicenter study involved 375 patients with residual NFPAs managed with SRS. The patients were divided into adjuvant (ADJ; treated for stable residual NFPA within 6 months of resection) and progression (PRG) cohorts (treated for residual NFPA progression). Factors associated with tumor progression and clinical deterioration were analyzed.

RESULTS

Following propensity-score matching, each cohort consisted of 130 patients. At last follow-up, tumor control was achieved in 93.1% of patients in the ADJ cohort and in 96.2% of patients in the PRG cohort (HR 1.6, 95% CI 0.55–4.9, p = 0.37). Hypopituitarism was associated with a maximum point dose of > 8 Gy to the pituitary stalk (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.6–12.6, p = 0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted in crude new-onset hypopituitarism rates (risk difference [RD] = −0.8%, p > 0.99) or visual deficits (RD = −2.3%, p = 0.21) between the two cohorts at the last follow-up. The median time from resection to new hypopituitarism was longer in the PRG cohort (58.9 vs 29.7 months, p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

SRS at residual NFPA progression does not appear to alter the probability of tumor control or hormonal/visual deficits compared with adjuvant SRS. Deferral of radiosurgical management to the time of radiological progression could significantly prolong the time to radiosurgically induced pituitary dysfunction. A lower maximum point dose (< 8 Gy) to the pituitary stalk portended a more favorable chance of preserving pituitary function after SRS.